61 million år gammel pingvin fossil

The oldest fossilized giant penguin
A recently discovered fossil of a giant penguin with a body length of around 150 centimeters has been described in a new article. The new find dates back to the Paleocene era and, with an age of approximately 61 million years, counts among the oldest penguin fossils in the world. The bones differ significantly from those of other discoveries of the same age and indicate that the diversity of Paleo

61 million år gammel pingvin fossil

Oldest penguin fossil shows that penguins diversified earlier than previously assumed
Together with colleagues from New Zealand, Senckenberg scientist Dr. Gerald Mayr described a recently discovered fossil of a giant penguin with a body length of around 150 centimeters. The new find dates back to the Paleocene era and, with an age of approx. 61 million years, counts among the oldest penguin fossils in the world. The bones differ significantly from those of other discoveries of the

antibiotika

Lucy Shapiro (Stanford Univ) Part 2: Escalating Infectious Disease Threat
Many antibiotics, which we have taken for granted since the 1950's, are now becoming ineffective because bacteria have developed ways of acquiring resistance. The development of new antibiotics is lagging behind the loss of the old ones in this race to combat infectious disease. Simultaneously, there is an increase in infectious diseases around the world due to over population, globalization and

antibiotika: bakterier der tåler antibiotika

[Perspective] Why tolerance invites resistance
Bacteria use two strategies to avoid being killed by antibiotics: resistance and tolerance. Resistance mechanisms such as destruction of a drug or modification of its target allow bacteria to grow in the presence of antibiotics. Tolerance is a property of dormant, nongrowing bacterial cells in which antibiotic targets are inactive, allowing bacteria to survive. The two phenomena are mechanisticall

antibiotika: bakterier der tåler antibiotika

[Report] Antibiotic tolerance facilitates the evolution of resistance
Controlled experimental evolution during antibiotic treatment can help to explain the processes leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Recently, intermittent antibiotic exposures have been shown to lead rapidly to the evolution of tolerance—that is, the ability to survive under treatment without developing resistance. However, whether tolerance delays or promotes the eventual emergence of r

apoptose

Xiaodong Wang (U Texas Southwestern/HHMI) Part 3: Extrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that plays important roles during animal development, immune response, elimination of damaged cells, and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis is executed by intracellular proteases named caspases that are activated during the onset of apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. The intrinsic pathway is triggered by the release of proteins su

apoptose

Xiaodong Wang (U Texas Southwestern/HHMI) Part 2: The Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that plays important roles during animal development, immune response, elimination of damaged cells, and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis is executed by intracellular proteases named caspases that are activated during the onset of apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. The intrinsic pathway is triggered by the release of proteins su

apoptose

Xiaodong Wang (U Texas Southwestern/HHMI) Part 1: Introduction to Apoptosis
Lecture Overview Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that plays important roles during animal development, immune response, elimination of damaged cells, and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis is executed by intracellular proteases named caspases that are activated during the onset of apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org The int

astma og tarmbakterie

Asthma Now Linked to a Yeast Found in Infant Gut Microbes
A yeast found in the gut micro biome of infants is implicated in the development of asthma. .

atmosfæriske floder

'Atmospheric rivers' associated with California flooding also common in the southeast
Much of the flood-inducing rainfall that has pummeled California over the last month flowed into the region via a river in the sky. But these so-called atmospheric rivers, which transport large quantities of water vapor poleward from the tropics, can wreak havoc in the Southeast as well.

autisme - tidlig screening

Removing barriers to early intervention for autistic children: A new model shows promise
Acting on recommendations from the South Carolina Act Early Team, South Carolina changed its policies to pay for early intensive behavioral intervention in children under three revealed to be at high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by a two-stage screening process. Previously, a formal diagnosis of ASD had been required. As a result, the number of children under three receiving early inter

autisme i film

An Oscar-Nominated Film Inspires a New Approach to Autism
The obsessive interests that consume many kids on the spectrum may turn out to be pathways to growth

autisme og gener

Sorting out risk genes for brain development disorders
Gene discovery research is uncovering similarities and differences underlying a variety of disorders affecting the developing brain, including autism, attention deficits, tics, intellectual impairments, developmental delays and language difficulties. Researchers found some genes are more closely associated with autism and others with intellectual impairments, but many times there is overlap, indic

autismerelevant emne: emotionel bevidsthed

A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness

bakteriofag støtter bakteriefotosyntese

Viruses support photosynthesis in bacteria
Viruses propagate by infecting a host cell and reproducing inside. This not only affects humans and animals, but bacteria as well. This type of virus is called bacteriophage. They carry so called auxiliary metabolic genes in their genome, which are responsible for producing certain proteins that give the virus an advantage. Researchers have analyzed the structure of such a protein more closely. It

bakteriofag støtter bakteriefotosyntese

Study: Viruses support photosynthesis in bacteria – an evolutionary advantage?
Viruses propagate by infecting a host cell and reproducing inside. This not only affects humans and animals, but bacteria as well. This type of virus is called bacteriophages. They carry so-called auxiliary metabolic genes in their genomes, which are responsible for producing certain proteins that give the virus an advantage. Researchers at the University of Kaiserslautern and the Ruhr University

borgervidenskab

Want people to volunteer as lab rats? Turn your science into a game.
Science Book Excerpt: Power Play: How video games can save the world One of the most successful examples of citizen science is Lab in the Wild, an experimental platform for conducting online behavioral experiments…

cassava gift

Poverty Plus A Poisonous Plant Blamed For Paralysis In Rural Africa
Some African countries have long witnessed mysterious outbreaks of paralysis. Affected regions are poor and conflict-ridden, where people's main food is a bitter, poisonous variety of cassava.

chimpanse med down syndrom

'Down Syndrome' in Chimps Seen for Only the Second Time
A 24-year-old female chimpanzee in Japan has a genetic disorder not observed in her species since 1969, one that looks similar to Down syndrome in humans.

D vitamin

Britisk undersøgelse: D-vitamin i fødevarer forebygger sygdomme
Forsøg med 11.000 personer viser, at D-vitaminberigelse af fødevarer vil kunne nedbringe antallet af sygemeldinger markant. Danskere er dog skeptiske.

diamanter

Diamond's 2-billion-year growth charts tectonic shift in early Earth's carbon cycle
A study of tiny mineral 'inclusions' within diamonds from Botswana has shown that diamond crystals can take billions of years to grow. One diamond was found to contain silicate material that formed 2.3 billion years ago in its interior and a 250 million-year-old garnet crystal towards its outer rim, the largest age range ever detected in a single specimen. Analysis of the inclusions also suggests

doomsday frølager på Svalbard

Arctic 'doomsday' seed vault receives 50,000 new deposits
Nearly 10 years after a "doomsday" seed vault opened on an Arctic island, some 50,000 new samples from seed collections around the world have been deposited in the world's largest repository built to safeguard against wars or natural disasters wiping out global food crops.

drone kan spises

Spiselig drone skal redde liv i katastrofeområder
En drone, der kan spises, forventes i produktion i slutningen af 2017. Den skal levere fødevarehjælp og samtidig erstatte farlige missioner for nødhjælpsarbejdere.

droner lander på bevægelige mål

Researchers teach drones to land themselves on moving targets
Researchers are using artificial intelligence called fuzzy logic to get drones to navigate and land themselves on moving platforms. This holds promise for commercial uses such as delivering packages from moving vehicles.

droner lander på bevægelige mål

Researchers teach drones to land themselves on moving targets
The buzzword in drone research is autonomous—having the unmanned aerial vehicle do most or all of its own flying.

fermenterede fødevarer

Fermented Foods Find Fervent Advocate
Properly fermented foods deliver probiotics that could help cut disease risk, said a researcher at the annual meeting of the AAAS.

fruktose dannes i hjernen

Fructose is generated in the human brain
Fructose, a form of sugar linked to obesity and diabetes, is converted in the human brain from glucose, according to a new study. The finding raises questions about fructose's effects on the brain and eating behavior.

fugle evolution

[Perspective] A Mesozoic aviary
The evolution of birds from a group of small dinosaurs between 170 million and 150 million years ago has emerged as a textbook example of a major evolutionary transformation in the fossil record (1). The attainment of powered flight—that is, active flapping that generates thrust—has been widely regarded, sometimes explicitly but often implicitly, as a long evolutionary march in which natural selec

fugle evolution

[This Week in Science] How dinosaurs took to the air
.

fugles evolution

Scott Edwards (Harvard) Part 2: Multilocus phylogeography of Australian birds
http://www.ibioseminars.org In his first lecture, Dr. Edwards explains that studying gene alleles within different populations or species allows the construction of gene trees showing how the groups are related. The gene trees can be used to link genetic variation to geographic distribution of populations; the study of phylogeography. In Part 2, Edwards expands his discussion of phylogeography wi

fødevarebehov i fremtiden

Widely accepted vision for agriculture may be inaccurate, misleading
'Food production must double by 2050 to feed the world's growing population.' This truism has been repeated so often in recent years that it has become widely accepted among academics, policymakers and farmers, but now researchers are challenging this assertion and suggesting a new vision for the future of agriculture. New research suggests that production likely will need to increase between 25 p

glaucom og stamceller

Research on retinal pigment epithelial cells promises new future treatment for glaucoma patients
Scientific research builds its own momentum as one discovery triggers another, building an ongoing wave of unexpected possibilities. In the world of glaucoma, such a surge began when advances in stem cell research opened doors experts had never imagined.

Google site search lukkes

Google lukker og slukker for Google Site Search
https://www.version2.dk/artikel/google-lukker-slukker-google-site-search-1073681 Google lukker og slukker for Google Site Search

hjerne til computer

Implant lets paralyzed people type with their minds
A brain-to-computer hookup recently allowed people with severe limb weakness to type via direct brain control at the highest speeds and accuracy levels reported to date. Two of the participants have amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also called Lou Gehrig’s disease, and one has a spinal cord injury. They each had one or two baby-aspirin-sized electrode arrays placed in their brains to record signals

hsp90 chaparone protein

Researchers uncover a role for HSP90 in gene-environment interactions in humans
Proteins do most of the work inside the human body, supporting the structure, function, regulation, and repair of organs, tissues and cells. Proteins are synthesized as extended chains of amino acids that must fold into intricate three-dimensional shapes to perform their work. However, protein folding is a very delicate process: crowded conditions within a cell or environmental changes around the

hukommelse i det neurale system

Mu-ming Poo (UC Berkeley, CAS Shanghai) Part 1: The Cellular Basis of Learning and Memory
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=718&Itemid=709 In part 1 of his lecture, Dr. Poo gives an overview of the cellular basis of learning and memory. He explains how sensory input results in neuronal activity in the neural circuits that can strengthen or weaken synaptic junctions for extended periods of time. The result of this modification of the synapse is pe

hukommelse i det visionære system

Mu-ming Poo (UC Berkeley, CAS Shanghai) Part 3: Sequence Learning and Memory
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=716&Itemid=711 Part 3 starts with a "name that tune" game to demonstrate that memory is temporally specific, i.e., the sequence and interval between events are important elements in our memory. Poo goes on to describe two experiments, based on the concept of STDP, that investigate how the visual system may store the memory o

humlebier kan indlære

Watch scientists train bees to play with tiny soccer balls
Animals The study shows that bees can adapt to really weird circumstances Here's the buzz: bees are brilliant.

humlebier kan indlære

Bees Learn to Roll Balls, Earn Rewards | Video
Bumblebees show scientists that they can learn so-called “unnatural” activities, such as rolling a ball into a target.

humlebier kan indlære

Goal! Ball-Rolling Bees Score Big Science Wins
Bees roll tiny balls and score miniature goals, in a new study demonstrating their capabilities for complex learning.

humlebier kan indlære

[Report] Bumblebees show cognitive flexibility by improving on an observed complex behavior
We explored bees’ behavioral flexibility in a task that required transporting a small ball to a defined location to gain a reward. Bees were pretrained to know the correct location of the ball. Subsequently, to obtain a reward, bees had to move a displaced ball to the defined location. Bees that observed demonstration of the technique from a live or model demonstrator learned the task more efficie

humlebier kan indlære

Ball-rolling bees reveal complex learning
Bumblebees can be trained to score goals using a mini-ball, revealing unprecedented learning abilities.

humlebier kan indlære

Bees learn football from their buddies
The insects show sophisticated learning for non-bee related tasks, and can even improve on what they are taught.

humlebier kan indlære

Bees learn to play golf and show off how clever they really are
Bumblebees have shown they can learn how to push a ball into a hole to get a reward, staking their claim to be considered tool users

humlebier kan indlære

ScienceTake: Bumblebees Demonstrate the Power of Insect Brains
Scientists trained bumblebees to move a ball to the center of a platform to gain a sugary treat.

humlebier kan indlære

Small Brain, Big Smarts
Bumblebees, trained to push a ball to a goal to get a treat, show that the insect brain should be judged by its power, not its size.

humlebier kan indlære

Ball-rolling bees reveal complex learning
Bumblebees can be trained to score goals using a mini-ball, revealing unprecedented learning abilities, according to scientists at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).

hvordan sommerfugle kan få energi til migration

The value of nutrition and exercise, according to a moth
How can animals that feed mostly on sugar embark on migrations spanning continents? What looked like flawed scientific data led to an unexpected discovery, thanks to the tenacity of a group of biologists.

klimaændring og dybhavet

Warming temperatures could trigger starvation, extinctions in deep oceans
Researchers from 20 of the world's leading oceanographic research centers today warned that the world's largest habitat - the deep ocean floor - may face starvation and sweeping ecological change by the year 2100.

klimaændring virkning på dybhavet

Warming temperatures could trigger starvation, extinctions in deep oceans
Researchers from 20 of the world's leading oceanographic research centers today warned that the world's largest habitat -- the deep ocean floor -- may face starvation and sweeping ecological change by the year 2100.

kost bør indeholde mere grøntsager og frugt

You should be eating 10 pieces of fruit or veg every day, not 5
A review of 95 studies suggests we should be eating 10 portions of fruit and veg a day to reduce our chances of dying from a heart attack or cancer

kræft

Dansk forskning åbner for ny type immunbehandling af kræft
Forskere fra Aarhus Universitet har gjort opdagelsen, der kan få stor betydning for fremtidens immunbehandling af kræft.

kunstigt kød

Lab-Grown Meat Is Almost Here
Pluripotent stems cells might be the key to creating reliable lab-grown meat. .

livets opståen

Jack Szostak (Harvard/HHMI) Part 1: The Origin of Cellular Life on Earth
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/evolution-ecology/jack-szostak-part-1.html Szostak begins his lecture with examples of the extreme environments in which life exists on Earth. He postulates that given the large number of earth-like planets orbiting sun-like stars, and the ability of microbial life to exist in a wide range of environments, it is probable that an environment that could support

livets opståen

Jack Szostak (Harvard/HHMI) Part 2: Protocell Membranes
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/evolution-ecology/jack-szostak-part-2.html Szostak begins his lecture with examples of the extreme environments in which life exists on Earth. He postulates that given the large number of Earth-like planets orbiting Sun-like stars, and the ability of microbial life to exist in a wide range of environments, it is probable that an environment that could support

livets opståen

Jack Szostak (Harvard/HHMI) Part 3: Non-enzymatic Copying of Nucleic Acid Templates
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/evolution-ecology/jack-szostak-part-3.html Szostak begins his lecture with examples of the extreme environments in which life exists on Earth. He postulates that given the large number of Earth-like planets orbiting Sun-like stars, and the ability of microbial life to exist in a wide range of environments, it is probable that an environment that could support

magnetisk resonans mikroskop på vej

First Magnetic Resonance Microscope Has Human Biochemistry in Its Sights
With a sensor made from diamond, the new microscope can study biochemical processes in unprecedented detail.

magnetisk resonans mikroskop på vej

This Microscope Could Reveal Human Biochemistry at Previously Unimaginable Scales
A sensor made from diamond can see details as small as 300 nanometers.

meningitis

1813 sendte ikke ambulance –17-årig døde af meningitis
Det var en fejl, at akuttelefonen 1813 ikke sendte en ambulance nytårsmorgen, hvor 17-årig ringede til akuttelefonen og kort efter døde af meningitis. Det vurderer ekspert.

methan fra CO2

Light-driven reaction converts carbon dioxide into fuel
Duke University researchers have developed tiny nanoparticles that help convert carbon dioxide into methane using only ultraviolet light as an energy source.

mikroskop - ny type

This Microscope Reveals Human Biochemistry at Previously Unimaginable Scales
A sensor made from diamond can see details as small as 300 nanometers.

MRSA i næsten alle danske svin

Chok-undersøgelse: Nu har 88 procent af danske svin MRSA
Det går den forkerte vej med at bekæmpe de resistente MRSA-bakterier i danske svinestalde, viser helt ny undersøgelse. Uacceptabelt, siger politiker.

neanderthal gener

Extinct Neanderthals still control expression of human genes
Early humans may have outcompeted Neanderthals, but their influence lives on in DNA some of us inherited after the two interbred

neanderthal gener

Neanderthal DNA contributes to human gene expression
The last Neanderthal died 40,000 years ago, but much of their genome lives on, in bits and pieces, through modern humans. The impact of Neanderthals' genetic contribution has been uncertain: Do these snippets affect our genome's function, or are they just silent passengers along for the ride? In Cell on February 23, researchers report evidence that Neanderthal DNA sequences still influence how gen

nitrat-anion kan danne uventede Lewis syrer

The unexpected supramolecular chemistry of nitrate anions
A team of researchers argues that the nitrate anion can display a counterintuitive Lewis acidity. Their findings may serve as a (retrospective) guide to interpret data involving the chemical behavior of nitrate anions, which are ubiquitous in nature.

ny type magnet med grafen

Three layers of graphene reveals a new kind of magnet
Metals have a large density of electrons and to be able to see the wave nature of electrons one has to make metallic wires that are only a few atoms wide. However, in graphene - one atom thick graphite—the density of electrons is much smaller and can be changed by making a transistor. As a result of the low density of electrons the wave nature of electrons, as described by quantum mechanics, is ea

OCD og gener

OCD-like behavior linked to genetic mutation
A new study found evidence suggesting how neural dysfunction in a certain region of the brain can lead to obsessive and repetitive behaviors much like obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

pankreas kræft

Why is pancreatic cancer so hard to treat? Stroma provides new clues
Why are pancreatic tumors so resistant to treatment? One reason is that the 'wound'-like tissue that surrounds the tumors, called stroma, is so dense, likely preventing cancer-killing drugs from reaching the tumor. A team has now discovered heterogeneity in the fibroblast portion of the stroma, opening up the possibility of targeted treatment.

pankreas kræft

Tumor protein could hold key to pancreatic cancer survival
A diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is often a death sentence because current chemotherapies have little impact on the disease. In a new study, researchers were able to slow down growth and spread of tumors by targeting this protein in stellate cells in animal models, in combination with current chemotherapies.

PERK protein og Alzheimer

PERK protein opens line of communication between inside and outside of the cell
PERK is known to detect protein folding errors in the cell. Researchers at the Laboratory of Cell Death Research & Therapy at KU Leuven (University of Leuven, Belgium) have now revealed a hidden perk: the protein also coordinates the communication between the inside and the outside of the cell. These findings open up new avenues for further research into treatments for cancer, Alzheimer's, and dia

personlig genkortlægning

Direct-to-consumer genomics: Harmful or empowering?
In a new study, a research explores questions that stem from new advances in direct-to-consumer DNA tests, which have the effect of separating the physician-patient relationship from access to new personal health data.

plantefrø nedbrydes af to arter- fugl og ræv- og spredes

Research shows secondary seed dispersal by predator animals is important for recolonization of plants
In the middle of Alberta's boreal forest, a bird eats a wild chokecherry. During his scavenging, the bird is caught and eaten by a fox. The cherry seed, now inside the belly of the bird within the belly of fox, is transported far away from the tree it came from. Eventually, the seed is deposited on the ground. After being broken down in the belly of not one but two animals, the seed is ready to ge

polio dyremodel

Researchers develop model for studying rare polio-like illness
Scientists have developed the first animal model for studying paralysis caused by virus linked to a polio-like illness that paralyzed 120 children in 2014.

prion

Protein Folding and Prion Disease - Susan Lindquist (MIT)
The role of protein folding in prion disease such as mad cow disease is explained by Susan Lindquist. Watch the entire seminar at www.ibioseminars.org. From: iBiology

protein der sikrer æg/sæd fusion bruges også ved virusfusion

New link found between sex and viruses
Sexual reproduction and viral infections both rely on a functionally identical protein, according to new research. The protein enables the fusion of two cells, such as a sperm cell and egg cell, or the fusion of a virus with a cell membrane. The discovery suggests that the protein evolved early in the history of life on Earth, and new details about the protein's function could help fight parasitic

proteiner der ikke foldes på bestemt måde

[Perspective] Quantifying protein (dis)order
Twenty-five years ago, Chothia predicted that the structural domains of all proteins can be classified into about 1000 folds (1). Later studies refined this number; however, scientists also found that some proteins or parts of proteins never assume a specific fold. These regions are called intrinsically unstructured or disordered (2). Oncogenes such as p53 or breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) contain long d

psykopater - nyt syn på

Top professional performance through psychopathy
The term “psychopath” is not flattering: such people are considered cold, manipulative, do not feel any remorse and seek thrills without any fear – and all that at other’s expense. A study is now shattering this image. They claim that a certain form of psychopathy can lead to top professional performance, without harming others or the company.

sandheder og løgne

The Essential Role of Storytelling in the Search for Truth
As trust in experts declines, authenticity and personal connection matter more. And where does authenticity come from, anyway?

SARS

SARS and MERS: What’s Next?
It may be difficult to remember now, but when SARS was first recognized in February 2003, people were scared. This heretofore unknown disease was killing people—nearly 10 percent of those infected with what came to be recognized as the SARS-associated coronavirus. Before the end of the year, cases were reported in 29 countries.

skove trues af tørke

Forests worldwide threatened by drought
Forests around the world are at risk of death due to widespread drought, University of Stirling researchers have found.

solenergi i Kina

What 4 Million Solar Panels Look Like from Space
The largest solar farm in the world, in China, generates almost as much electricity as a large nuclear power plant

solsystem fundet mange lysår væk

NASA wants the internet to get hype about these new exoplanets
Space You can basically read fanfiction about them On Wednesday, NASA announced the discovery of seven "Earthlike" planets orbiting a nearby star. And then they rolled out a lot of goodies.

solsystem fundet mange lysår væk

7 Earth-size worlds found orbiting star; could hold life
For the first time, astronomers have discovered seven Earth-size planets orbiting a single nearby star—and these new worlds could hold life.

stamceller

Elaine Fuchs (Rockefeller) Part 2: Tapping the Potential of Adult Stem Cells, and Summary
http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/cell-bio-a-med/elaine-fuchs.html During embryogenesis, a single fertilized oocyte gives rise to a multicellular organism whose cells and tissues have adopted differentiated characteristics or fates to perform the specified functions of each organ of the body. As embryos develop, cells that have acquired their particular fate proliferate, enabling tissues and

stamceller

Elaine Fuchs (Rockefeller) Part 1: Introduction to Stem Cells
http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/cell-bio-a-med/elaine-fuchs.html During embryogenesis, a single fertilized oocyte gives rise to a multicellular organism whose cells and tissues have adopted differentiated characteristics or fates to perform the specified functions of each organ of the body. As embryos develop, cells that have acquired their particular fate proliferate, enabling tissues and

stamceller

Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa (Johns Hopkins) Part 2: Stem Cells and Brain Tumors
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/alfredo-quinones-hinojosa-part-2.html In the second part of his talk, Dr. Q presents results from his lab and others that are beginning to provide insight into understanding brain tumor stem cells and the key role they play in both causing and possibly curing brain cancer. From: iBiology

stamceller fra blod forynges

How blood can be rejuvenated
Our blood stem cells generate around a thousand billion new blood cells every day. But the blood stem cells’ capacity to produce blood changes as we age. This leads to older people being more susceptible to anemia, lowered immunity and a greater risk of developing certain kinds of blood cancer. Now for the first time, a research team has succeeded in rejuvenating blood stem cells with established

svin der er virusresistente

Gene-edited pigs show signs of resistance to major viral disease
Scientists have produced pigs that may be protected from an infection that costs the swine industry billions each year.

synæstesi

Sensory Perception - Catherine Dulac (Harvard)
Catherine Dulac describes the condition Synesthesia, as an example of sensory perception gone wrong. Watch the whole video at www.ibioseminars.org. From: iBiology

sønner af kokain-fædre har hukommelsesproblemer

Sons of cocaine-using fathers have profound memory impairments
Fathers who use cocaine at the time of conceiving a child may be putting their sons at risk of learning disabilities and memory loss. The researchers say the findings reveal that drug abuse by fathers -- separate from the well-established effects of cocaine use in mothers -- may negatively impact cognitive development in their male offspring.

søvn

Tiny cavefish may help humans evolve to require very little sleep
We all do it; we all need it—humans and animals alike. Sleep is an essential behavior shared by nearly all animals and disruption of this process is associated with an array of physiological and behavioral deficits. Although there are so many factors contributing to sleep loss, very little is known about the neural basis for interactions between sleep and sensory processing.

tobak og reklame - australske plain packets

Plain packets help smokers quit by killing brand identities
Smokers no longer derive a sense of identity from cigarette brands after plain packaging rule was introduced in Australia, helping them to kick the habit

transposoner

Susan Wessler (UC Riverside) Part 2: How transposable elements amplify throughout genomes
http://www.ibioseminars.org In Part 1, Wessler introduces transposable elements (TEs); small movable pieces of DNA that can insert throughout the genome. She describes their discovery in maize by Barbara McClintock in the 1940's and their impact on the current study of genetics. Wessler goes on to provide more details about TEs and transposase, the enzyme that facilitates insertion of TEs into th

transposoner

Susan Wessler (UC Riverside) Part 1: Introduction to transposable elements
http://www.ibioseminars.org In Part 1, Wessler introduces transposable elements (TEs); small movable pieces of DNA that can insert throughout the genome. She describes their discovery in maize by Barbara McClintock in the 1940's and their impact on the current study of genetics. Wessler goes on to provide more details about TEs and transposase, the enzyme that facilitates insertion of TEs into th

Trump og FDA

[Editorial] Approving new drugs
As the Trump administration takes shape, there is much speculation as to what major changes will be made. A dominant theme of the Trump campaign was to cut through bureaucracy in Washington, D.C., thereby enhancing innovation and bringing new technology to Americans more quickly. Nowhere could such a philosophical change have more impact than on Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of new d

Trump og innovation

Trump’s Tax Talk Sounds Less Than “Phenomenal” for Tech
Washington is considering tax reform that would bring cash back to the U.S., but it’s unlikely to boost innovation.

Trump og science

Should Scientists March? U.S. Researchers Still Debating Pros And Cons
A "March for Science" is set for April 22 in Washington, D.C., to show support for evidence-based public policy. But some worry the march will be seen as partisan, and may even undermine sound policy.

ulve

Ulvejagt: Sådan klapper fotofælden
Vildtkameraer er et afgørende våben i “jagten” på de jyske ulve.

zika

Feverish Sprint for a Zika Vaccine Faces a Strange Hurdle this Summer
No one wants active viral outbreaks—but researchers need them to make sure vaccinations work

zika

To Test Zika Vaccines, Scientists Need A New Outbreak
It's a bit of a paradox, but researchers say they need Zika virus to re-emerge this year so they can test vaccines designed to defeat it.

zika

Researchers aim to disrupt egg production in dengue- and Zika-spreading mosquito
The mosquito Aedes aegypti, which can spread dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika fever, and yellow fever virus, requires a blood meal to develop eggs. One way to control the spread of these diseases is to tamper with the reproductive events that follow this mosquito's blood meal. A team of scientists has explored this at the molecular level. They focused on microRNAs, which play a critical role in mos

fMRI Analysis of Three Concurrent Processing Pathways

Bouncing baby bongo shows its stripes at Los Angeles Zoo
A rare baby bongo has made its debut at the Los Angeles Zoo.

Agricultural robot may be 'game changer' for crop growers, breeders
A semiautonomous robot may soon be roaming agricultural fields gathering and transmitting real-time data about the growth and development of crops, information that crop breeders—and eventually farmers—can use to identify the genetic traits in plants likely to produce the greatest yields.

New gene for atrazine resistance identified in waterhemp
Waterhemp has been locked in an arms race with farmers for decades. Nearly every time farmers attack the weed with a new herbicide, waterhemp becomes resistant to it, reducing or eliminating the efficacy of the chemical. Some waterhemp populations have evolved resistance to multiple herbicides, making them incredibly difficult to kill.

Researchers find new clues for nuclear waste cleanup
A Washington State University study of the chemistry of technetium-99 has improved understanding of the challenging nuclear waste and could lead to better cleanup methods.

NIST patents first DNA method to authenticate mouse cell lines
"A case of mistaken identity" may drive the plot of the latest spy film or crime novel, but it's only a tale of trouble for geneticists, oncologists, drug manufacturers and others working with mouse cell lines, one of the most commonly used laboratory model systems for genetic research. Cell lines that have been contaminated or misidentified due to poor laboratory technique and human error lead to

Bored by physical therapy? Focus on citizen science instead
Researchers at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering have devised a method by which patients requiring repetitive rehabilitative exercises, such as those prescribed by physical therapists, can voluntarily contribute to scientific projects in which massive data collection and analysis is needed.

California Needs Atmospheric Rivers. But Like, Not This Many
With warmer weather stirring up bigger, stronger storms, California's flood management system is feeling the strain.

Review: Microsoft Surface Studio
Microsoft wrote a love letter to Apple-toting creative types, in the form of the coolest desktop PC you've ever seen.

Will drones pull rain from desert clouds?
Aviation A test flight of a drone brings an unmanned cloud seeding tool one step closer. A test flight of a drone brings an unmanned cloud seeding tool one step closer.

Researchers Discover a New Reason Why Ancient Societies Practiced Human Sacrifice
Ritualized killings once took place in many societies and in most regions around the globe. .

On the origin of ice trays
Gadgets That cube in your cocktail is a product of evolution. That cube in your cocktail is a product of evolution. Read on.

Bees Learn Soccer from Their Buddies
The insects show sophisticated learning for non-bee–related tasks, and can even improve on what they are taught

Dark Clouds on Legalized Pot’s Rainbow-Colored Horizon?
Author Tony Dokoupil predicts a Liberal backlash against grass now that it’s becoming legal. .

Desks join the internet of things
The internet of things promises to revolutionize the way we live, connecting the objects in our homes to one another and to the vast array of information available online. The possibilities are enormous, and one benefit may be improving our health.

Last year's El Niño waves battered California shore to unprecedented degree
Last winter's El Niño may have felt weak to residents of Southern California, but it was one of the most powerful weather events of the last 145 years, scientists say.

The role of weight in postmenopausal women's longevity
In a large multiethnic study, being underweight was linked with an increased risk of early death among postmenopausal women, report researchers.

Values gap in workplace can lead millennials to look elsewhere
Much has been made in popular culture about millennials as they join the working world, including their tendency to job hop. Although this behavior often is explained as a loyalty issue, new research reveals one reason young workers choose to leave a firm is because they find a disconnect between their beliefs and the culture they observe in the workplace.

Contact tracing and targeted insecticide spraying can curb dengue outbreaks
Contact tracing -- a process of identifying everyone who has come into contact with those infected by a particular disease -- combined with targeted, indoor spraying of insecticide can greatly reduce the spread of the mosquito-borne dengue virus, finds a study.

Microbes differ downstream from fracking wastewater
Wastewater from oil and gas operations—including fracking for shale gas—at a West Virginia site altered microbes downstream, according to a new study. The study, published in Science of the Total Environment , shows that wastewater releases, including briny water that contained petroleum and other pollutants, altered the diversity, numbers, and functions of microbes. The shifts in the microbial c

Using Redescription Mining to Relate Clinical and Biological Characteristics of Cognitively Impaired and Alzheimer's Disease Patients
Based on a set of subjects and a collection of descriptors obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, we use redescription mining to find rules revealing associations between these determinants which provides insights about the Alzheimer's disease (AD). We applied a four-step redescription mining algorithm (CLUS-RM), which has been extended to engender constraint-based

TRAPPIST-1: How Long Would It Take to Fly to 7-Planet System?
The discovery of seven Earth-size planets around a nearby star, TRAPPIST-1, is certainly exciting news. But what would it take to visit one of these potentially Earth-like alien worlds?

Global vaccine injury system needed to improve public health
A global vaccine injury compensation system administered through the World Health Organization would address the global public health issue of vaccine injuries, experts argue.

Gene mutations cause leukemia, but which ones?
New research sought to better understand one 'typo' in a standard leukemia assay, or test. The study, however, encountered a new problem: an issue with the model system itself.

Air pollution may have masked mid-20th Century sea ice loss
Humans may have been altering Arctic sea ice longer than previously thought, according to researchers studying the effects of air pollution on sea ice growth in the mid-20th Century.

Computer bots are more like humans than you might think, having fights lasting years
Bots appear to behave differently in culturally distinct online environments. A new paper says the findings are a warning to those using artificial intelligence for building autonomous vehicles, cyber security systems or for managing social media.

McDonalds' fancy new straw doesn't suck
Science And that's the problem We tested out McDonalds' crazy new straw. It's got some issues.

[Research Article] Cell-wide analysis of protein thermal unfolding reveals determinants of thermostability
Temperature-induced cell death is thought to be due to protein denaturation, but the determinants of thermal sensitivity of proteomes remain largely uncharacterized. We developed a structural proteomic strategy to measure protein thermostability on a proteome-wide scale and with domain-level resolution. We applied it to Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Thermus thermophilus, and human ce

[Research Article] The [4Fe4S] cluster of human DNA primase functions as a redox switch using DNA charge transport
DNA charge transport chemistry offers a means of long-range, rapid redox signaling. We demonstrate that the [4Fe4S] cluster in human DNA primase can make use of this chemistry to coordinate the first steps of DNA synthesis. Using DNA electrochemistry, we found that a change in oxidation state of the [4Fe4S] cluster acts as a switch for DNA binding. Single-atom mutations that inhibit this charge tr

[Review] Mechanisms for initiating cellular DNA replication
Cellular DNA replication factories depend on ring-shaped hexameric helicases to aid DNA synthesis by processively unzipping the parental DNA helix. Replicative helicases are loaded onto DNA by dedicated initiator, loader, and accessory proteins during the initiation of DNA replication in a tightly regulated, multistep process. We discuss here the molecular choreography of DNA replication initiatio

[In Brief] News at a glance
In science news around the world, China sees a spike in cases of H7N9 infection, India plans a follow-up Mars mission and considers a mission to Venus, the U.S. Department of Agriculture restores some of the tens of thousands of animal welfare documents scrubbed from its website earlier this month, NASA says its Juno spacecraft will remain in a long orbit around Jupiter to avoid possible engine mi

[In Depth] California rains put spotlight on atmospheric rivers
In just a few months, California has moved from extreme drought to dangerous flooding, thanks to atmospheric rivers: long, narrow ribbons of water vapor in the sky. Just a few hundred kilometers wide, atmospheric rivers stretch thousands of kilometers from the tropical oceans toward the poles, carrying up to 20 times as much water as the Mississippi River. That moisture gets tugged along by the wi

[Perspective] Molecular stitches for enhanced recycling of packaging
Polymers made of even slightly different repeat units are usually immiscible and form materials with two separate phases, like oil and water. Not only do different polymers not mix, but the interfaces between them are very sharp and mechanically weak. This lack of interfacial strength poses a very serious challenge to the recycling of blends of different polymers and, notably, polyethylene (PE) an

[Perspective] Hematopoietic stem cells gone rogue
Cardiovascular disease is considered to be an aging-related disease and is the leading cause of death in the elderly in developed countries (1). As of 2013, 65% of deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease occurred among patients 75 years and older. A hallmark of aging is the accumulation of somatic DNA mutations in proliferative tissue. Although somatic mutations in the hematopoietic (blood cel

[Perspective] Thomas Crombie Schelling (1921–2016)
Thomas Schelling, the distinguished economist, died on 13 December 2016 at his home in Bethesda, Maryland. He was 95 years old. Schelling applied his prolific work in game theory to arms control and deterrence, negotiation strategy, and most recently, global warming. His strategic insights made the world a much safer place.

[Policy Forum] To slow or not? Challenges in subsecond networks
Fall 2016 brought a fundamental change to the United States. Its fastest and largest network—the decentralized network of electronic market exchanges—began to experience its first ever intentional delay. Specifically, a 38-mile coil of fiber-optic cable was embedded into a new exchange network node, which, given the finite speed of light, introduced a systematic 350-µs (microsecond) delay in signa

[Technical Comment] Comment on “Ducklings imprint on the relational concept of ‘same or different'”
Martinho and Kacelnik’s (Reports, 15 July 2016, p. 286) finding that mallard ducklings can deal with abstract concepts is important for understanding the evolution of cognition. However, a statistically more robust analysis of the data calls their conclusions into question. This example brings to light the risk of drawing too strong an inference by relying solely on P values.

[Technical Comment] Comment on “Ducklings imprint on the relational concept of ‘same or different’”
Martinho and Kacelnik (Reports, 15 July 2016, p. 286) reported that newly hatched ducklings imprinted on relational concepts. We argue that reanalyzing the data at the individual level shows that this conclusion cannot be applied for all sets of stimuli presented and that the ability to grasp relational concepts is limited to the stimulus category that is most beneficial for survival.

[Technical Response] Response to Comments on “Ducklings imprint on the relational concept of ‘same or different’”
Two Comments by Hupé and by Langbein and Puppe address our choice of statistical analysis in assigning preference between sets of stimuli to individual ducklings in our paper. We believe that our analysis remains the most appropriate approach for our data and experimental design.

[Association Affairs] New AAAS president emphasizes making the case for science
Susan Hockfield has built support for major research initiatives.

[This Week in Science] How will this molecule smell?
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[This Week in Science] Bacterial battles on your skin
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[This Week in Science] Very clever bees use tools
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[This Week in Science] Faulty blood cells and heart disease
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[This Week in Science] Spinning up an extragalactic neutron star
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[This Week in Science] Shining a light on cell signaling
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[This Week in Science] How to make opposites compatible
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[This Week in Science] How red berries reduce inflammation
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[This Week in Science] Diverse molecular choreography of replication
Authors: Guy Riddihough, Caroline Ash

[This Week in Science] How proteomes take the heat
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[This Week in Science] DNA charged with regulating replication
Authors: Guy Riddihough, Jake Yeston

[This Week in Science] Resistance on a background of tolerance
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[This Week in Science] What's in a fold?
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[This Week in Science] Defining the tree rings of T cells
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[Editors' Choice] DNA methylation curbs mast cell response
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[Editors' Choice] An old motif with new specificity
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[Editors' Choice] How tissues can take the heat
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[Editors' Choice] A supermassive black hole awakes
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[Editors' Choice] Polarity reversal during tissue remodeling
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[Editors' Choice] CO2 reduction off base
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[Editors' Choice] How animals sense CO2 in blood
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[Report] Combining polyethylene and polypropylene: Enhanced performance with PE/iPP multiblock polymers
Polyethylene (PE) and isotactic polypropylene (iPP) constitute nearly two-thirds of the world’s plastic. Despite their similar hydrocarbon makeup, the polymers are immiscible with one another. Thus, common grades of PE and iPP do not adhere or blend, creating challenges for recycling these materials. We synthesized PE/iPP multiblock copolymers using an isoselective alkene polymerization initiator.

[Report] An accreting pulsar with extreme properties drives an ultraluminous x-ray source in NGC 5907
Ultraluminous x-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies shine brighter than any x-ray source in our Galaxy. ULXs are usually modeled as stellar-mass black holes (BHs) accreting at very high rates or intermediate-mass BHs. We present observations showing that NGC 5907 ULX is instead an x-ray accreting neutron star (NS) with a spin period evolving from 1.43 seconds in 2003 to 1.13 seconds in 2014. It

[Report] Predicting human olfactory perception from chemical features of odor molecules
It is still not possible to predict whether a given molecule will have a perceived odor or what olfactory percept it will produce. We therefore organized the crowd-sourced DREAM Olfaction Prediction Challenge. Using a large olfactory psychophysical data set, teams developed machine-learning algorithms to predict sensory attributes of molecules based on their chemoinformatic features. The resulting

[Report] The cytotoxic Staphylococcus aureus PSMα3 reveals a cross-α amyloid-like fibril
Amyloids are ordered protein aggregates, found in all kingdoms of life, and are involved in aggregation diseases as well as in physiological activities. In microbes, functional amyloids are often key virulence determinants, yet the structural basis for their activity remains elusive. We determined the fibril structure and function of the highly toxic, 22-residue phenol-soluble modulin α3 (PSMα3) p

[Report] Optical control of cell signaling by single-chain photoswitchable kinases
Protein kinases transduce signals to regulate a wide array of cellular functions in eukaryotes. A generalizable method for optical control of kinases would enable fine spatiotemporal interrogation or manipulation of these various functions. We report the design and application of single-chain cofactor-free kinases with photoswitchable activity. We engineered a dimeric protein, pdDronpa, that disso

[Report] Clonal hematopoiesis associated with TET2 deficiency accelerates atherosclerosis development in mice
Human aging is associated with an increased frequency of somatic mutations in hematopoietic cells. Several of these recurrent mutations, including those in the gene encoding the epigenetic modifier enzyme TET2, promote expansion of the mutant blood cells. This clonal hematopoiesis correlates with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We studied the effects of the expansion o

[Departments] Gordon Research Conferences
The 2017 Gordon Research Conference schedule was published on pages 848 to 870 of this issue of the print version of Science. The current schedule can also be found online at www.grc.org/.

[New Products] New Products
A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.

[Working Life] How I'm standing up for science
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Understanding the impact of delays in high-speed networks
In a world increasingly reliant on high-speed networks, introducing microsecond delays into such systems can have profound effects.

Nematode resistance in soybeans beneficial even at low rates of infestation
Soybeans with resistance to soybean cyst nematodes seem to have a yield advantage compared to susceptible varieties when SCN is present. Until now, scientists did not know what level of SCN infestation is needed to achieve the yield advantage. A new study shows that SCN resistance from the soybean accession PI 88788 offers yield advantages even at very low infestation rates.

Vast luminous nebula poses a cosmic mystery
Astronomers have found an enormous, glowing blob of gas in the distant universe, with no obvious source of power for the light it is emitting. Called an 'enormous Lyman-alpha nebula' (ELAN), it is the brightest and among the largest of these rare objects, only a handful of which have been observed.

Almost 4 decades later, mini eyeless catfish gets a name
Discovered in a 1978-79 expedition, a pale, eyeless catfish that doesn't even measure an inch long is now known as Micromyzon orinoco, for the South American river in which it was discovered.

In rare disorder, novel agent stops swelling before it starts
A researcher who treats hereditary angioedema says a new drug, a potential game changer, is being studied in larger clinical trial.

Trilobite eggs in New York
Despite a plethora of exceptionally preserved trilobites, trilobite reproduction has remained a mystery. No previously described trilobite has had unambiguous eggs or genitalia preserved. A new study reports the first occurrence of in situ preserved trilobite eggs from the Lorraine Group in upstate New York, USA.

New laser spectroscopy technique to understand atomic and nuclear structure of radioactive atoms
An international collaboration with research groups from five countries – Belgium, Finland, France, Germany and Russia – have applyied high-resolution laser ionization of radioactive atoms in a supersonic gas jet to probe the properties of heavy elements.

The body does not absorb genetic material from our food
A study finds no evidence that genetic material from food is absorbed in the human body where it would, for example, be able to change the body’s ability to regulate the cholesterol metabolism or influence the immune system.

NASA eyes Pineapple Express soaking California
NASA has estimated rainfall from the Pineapple Express over the coastal regions southwestern Oregon and northern California from the series of storms in February, 2017.

Chu's Limit—a limit no more
Chu's Limit, a fundamental principle of electromagnetics, dictates that the bandwidth an antenna can function in has a maximum level proportional to the physical size of the antenna—the smaller the antenna, the smaller the bandwidth, the slower and less capable the communications link. Chu's Limit has been a foundational law of antenna and telecommunications research since its introduction in the

Video: The truth about catnip
Catnip is notorious for its euphoric effects on our feline companions.

Just how early is spring arriving in your neighborhood? Find out ...
Even Punxsutawaney Phil can't be blamed for being baffled this year and hightailing it back to his burrow. He predicted six more weeks of winter on Feb 2, but by then spring was already springing well ahead of historical norms in much of the USA.

Constant Phone Checkers Are Totally Strung Out
People who admit to relentless refreshing of e-mail and social media report far higher stress levels.

Missing Richard Simmons Is Gripping. And Also Kinda Icky
If a person goes looking for someone who doesn't want to be found, is that really a mystery worth solving?

Europeans brought new strains of ulcer-causing bacterium to pre-Columbian Americas
A genomic study of a harmful stomach bacterium finds that foreign strains intermingled with and replaced local strains after the arrival of Europeans and African slaves across the Americas.

What's Up with Warm February Weather in Most of US?
It may still be February, but spring-like temperatures in most of the United States are making people shed their winter coats unseasonably soon. So what's behind this warm weather?

African countries mobilize to battle invasive caterpillar
Authorities and researchers ramp up their efforts to tackle the invasive fall armyworm.

Spain to cull 17,000 ducks as bird flu hits
More than 17,000 ducks will be culled in Spain after a highly contagious bird flu strain that has affected poultry throughout Europe was detected at a farm, authorities said Thursday.

About to Break? Huge Crack Grows in Antarctic Ice Shelf | Video
Aerial footage reveals a huge crack in Antarctica’s Larsen C Ice Shelf.

NASA sees another quick Tropical Cyclone demise in South Pacific
NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of the end of Tropical Cyclone 8P as it was being sheared apart by strong vertical wind shear.

Melting sea ice may be speeding nature's clock in the Arctic
Spring is coming sooner to some plant species in the low Arctic of Greenland, while other species are delaying their emergence amid warming winters. The changes are associated with diminishing sea ice cover, according to a study published in the journal Biology Letters and led by the University of California, Davis.

Executive indiscretions can hurt the bottom line
A CEO outed for lying on a resume. An executive caught assaulting someone. A manager arrested for driving under the influence. These events certainly cast shadows on individuals, but a new study from Adam Yore, an assistant professor of finance in the Trulaske College of Business at the University of Missouri, shows that such indiscretions can have multimillion dollar consequences for the companie

New paper published in Phytobiomes may lead to novel methods of Rhizoctonia solani control
Rhizoctonia species—and R. solani specifically—are a complex group of soil fungi with broad host range and world-wide distribution.

Almost four decades later, mini eyeless catfish gets a name
After almost four decades, an elusive, eyeless catfish measuring less than an inch now has a name and a detailed description, thanks to two scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University: Micromyzon orinoco.

Nematode resistance in soybeans beneficial even at low rates of infestation
Each spring, tiny roundworms hatch and wriggle over to the nearest soybean root to feed. Before farmers are even aware of the belowground infestation, the soybean cyst nematode silently begins to wreak havoc on soybean yield.

Space dust deploy bubble parachutes on their fiery descent, scientists discover
Bubbles acting like parachutes are deployed by some cosmic dust particles on their entry into Earth’s atmosphere, preventing them from burning up.

Cultivating cool-for-cash-crop
Canola and camelina are cool-season crops that produce oilseeds. Soon they may find a home in California fields as a rotational crop with smart water use and high demand.

Air pollution may have masked mid-20th Century sea ice loss
Humans may have been altering Arctic sea ice longer than previously thought, according to researchers studying the effects of air pollution on sea ice growth in the mid-20th Century. The new results challenge the perception that Arctic sea ice extent was unperturbed by human-caused climate change until the 1970s.

Fik faktorerne, som skulle stabilisere finansmarkedet, det i stedet til at bryde sammen?
En matematisk analyse af komplekse netværks egenskaber viser, hvordan ustablilitet i det finansielle system kan opstå næsten af sig selv, hvis tilsynsmyndighederne fokuserer på den enkelte bank frem for på banksystemet som helhed.

Watch Velvet Worms Fire Their Slime Cannons
These deceptively cute purple worms are in fact fearsome predators, launching a net of sticky slime from tiny hoses to capture prey. Scientists are using high-speed cameras to understand how the...

Trilobites: How Far to the Next Forest? A New Way to Measure Deforestation
Researchers develop a new metric on deforestation, hoping the information will guide conservation and educate the public.

Amazon Alexa Hits 10,000 Skills. Here Comes the Hard Part
Amazon's next big challenge? Keeping up with Alexa's exponential growth.

Legion’s Big, Yellow-Eyed Problem With Mental Health
FX's new X-Men drama talks a lot about what goes on its protagonist's head-but doesn't go deep enough into his psyche.

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
Although stingless bees do not have a sting to fend off enemies, they are nonetheless able to defend their hives against attacks. Only four years ago it was discovered that a Brazilian bee species, the Jatai bee, has a soldier caste. The slightly larger fighters guard the entrance to the nest and grip intruders with their powerful mandibles in the event of an attack. Now researchers have identifie

Vast luminous nebula poses a cosmic mystery
Astronomers have found an enormous, glowing blob of gas in the distant universe, with no obvious source of power for the light it is emitting. Called an "enormous Lyman-alpha nebula" (ELAN), it is the brightest and among the largest of these rare objects, only a handful of which have been observed.

Patients registered in a heart failure registry lived longer
Heart failure patients registered in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry receive better medication and have a 35 percent lower risk of death than unregistered patients, according to a new study.

Researchers use laser-generated bubbles to create 3-D images in liquid
Researchers have developed a completely new type of display that creates 3-D images by using a laser to form tiny bubbles inside a liquid 'screen.' Instead of rendering a 3-D scene on a flat surface, the display itself is three-dimensional, a property known as volumetric. This allows viewers to see a 3-D image in the columnar display from all angles without any 3-D glasses or headsets.

Conflicts of Interest: Are Humans Inherently Selfish?
People want to work with others … most of the time.

National dose levels established for 10 common adult CT examinations
Using data from the world's largest CT dose index registry, researchers have established national dose levels for common adult CT examinations based on patient size. Healthcare facilities can optimize these exam protocols so that dose is commensurate with the size of the patient, avoiding unnecessary radiation exposure.

NASA's Jupiter-circling spacecraft stuck making long laps
NASA's Jupiter-circling spacecraft is stuck making long laps around the gas giant because of sticky valves.

Computerspillere skal lede efter fremmede planeter
EVE Online-spillere skal snart hjælpe forskere med at identificere exoplaneter via et minispil.

Absorb the Shock!
An engineering activity

Anti-aging gene identified as a promising therapeutic target for older melanoma patients
An anti-diabetic drug can inhibit the growth of melanoma in older patients by activating an anti-aging gene that in turn inhibits a protein involved in metastatic progression and resistance to targeted therapies for the disease, new research indicates.

English learners treated differently depending on where they go to school
As the number of English learners continues to grow across the nation, new research indicates these students are being treated differently depending on where they go to school.

Colossal (and Growing) Crack in Antarctic Ice Shelf Seen in New Video
A chunk of ice covering an area larger than the state of Rhode Island is about to snap off Antarctica's Larsen C Ice Shelf.

Early birds may make healthier food choices than night owls
Researchers looked at data from nearly 2,000 randomly chosen people to determine if their circadian or biological clock rhythm (chronotype) affected what they ate and at what time. Clear differences in both energy and macronutrients between the two chronotypes abound, with morning people making healthier choices throughout the day. Evening types ate less protein overall and ate more sucrose in the

Could Pluto Regain Its Planethood?
A proposed new definition for what constitutes a "planet" could reinstate the demoted icy world

New link found between sex and viruses
Sexual reproduction and viral infections actually have a lot in common. According to new research, both processes rely on a single protein that enables the seamless fusion of two cells, such as a sperm cell and egg cell, or the fusion of a virus with a cell membrane. The protein is widespread among viruses, single-celled protozoans, and many plants and arthropods, suggesting that the protein evolv

Brains of the operation—NASA team develops modular avionics systems for small missions
In just two years' time, a team of NASA engineers accomplished what some thought impossible: the group created a smaller, more capable "brain" for smaller spacecraft.

Meet China's triple-hulled warship of the future
From Our Blogs: Eastern Arsenal A trimaran vessel with all-electric propulsion, multiple helicopters, and anti-ship missiles. China Shipbuilding Trading Company plans for a high-tech trimaran warship with all-electric propulsion, multiple helicopters, and deadly missiles. Read on.

English learners treated differently depending on where they go to school
As the number of English learners continues to grow across the nation, new research indicates these students are being treated differently depending on where they go to school.

How to protect your smartphone's lock screen
DIY Are you revealing more than you need to? Your phone's lock screen is intended to keep unwelcome visitors out of your phone, but sometimes they still tease out personal information. Here's how to stop them.

Physicists Uncover Geometric ‘Theory Space’
In the 1960s, the charismatic physicist Geoffrey Chew espoused a radical vision of the universe, and with it, a new way of doing physics. Theorists of the era were struggling to find order in an unruly zoo of newfound particles. They wanted to know which ones were the fundamental building blocks of nature and which were composites. But Chew, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley,

My Best Friend Dropped Our Snapchat Streak. Should I Be Mad?
It hurts, for sure. But do you have a right to act hurt?

Dansk bænk skal rense luften på Oxford Street i London
I marts kan mennesker hvile benene, mens de trækker frisk luft på en af de mest forurenede gader i London. Et spinoff-firma fra Københavns Universitet står bag opfindelsen.

Woman killed by flying debris as Storm Doris batters Britain
A woman was killed by flying debris in central England Thursday as storm winds of more than 90 mph (145 kph) battered the United Kingdom.

A Renewables Marketplace Promises to Turn Neighborhoods Into Power Plants
A new Australian trial making use of spare solar storage and generation capacity will help match supply to demand.

Compounds that show potent anti-cancer activity in breast and colon tumor cell lines
Potential drugs have shown low toxicity in non-tumor cell lines, which could decrease side effects during chemotherapy, researchers suggest.

Mathematics supports a new way to classify viruses based on structure
Scientists have found new evidence to support a classification system for viruses based on viral structure.

Long-term stress linked to higher levels of obesity, hair samples show
People who suffer long-term stress may also be more prone to obesity, according to research that involved examining hair samples for levels of cortisol, a hormone which regulates the body's response to stress.

Solid foam’s clever shape makes it really strong
Scientists report that a metamaterial is the first to achieve the kind of performance predicted by theoretical bounds. Its lightness, strength, and versatility lends itself well to a variety of applications, from buildings to vehicles to packaging and transport, says Jonathan Berger, mechanical engineer and materials scientist at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He developed the mater

That giant crack in Antarctica just keeps getting bigger
Environment It's a matter of weeks before a Delaware-sized iceberg hits the high seas The Delaware-sized Larsen C glacier is set to break off of the Antarctic ice shelf any day now. Read on.

A few ways to fix an ailing government | Charity Wayua
Charity Wayua put her skills as a cancer researcher to use on an unlikely patient: the government of her native Kenya. She shares how she helped her government drastically improve its process for opening up new businesses, a crucial part of economic health and growth, leading to new investments and a World Bank recognition as a top reformer.

It-sikkerhed: Stigning i ransomware-angreb er ude af kontrol
https://www.version2.dk/artikel/it-sikkerhed-stigning-ransomware-angreb-ude-kontrol-1073737 Når der bliver lavet malware-angreb i dag, bliver det i højere og højere grad ransomware. Det er blevet en industri, hvor det er let at lave penge.

Skywire: Closing Ceremony
You’ve made great headway in the final leg of your journey, and are closing in on your destination. You feel relieved to have overcome so many surprising obstacles on your way, and are ready to reap the rewards of a job well done. Celebrate the Skywire competition at our Closing Ceremony, this Friday 2/24 at 4 PM EST . We’ll be awarding competition points, badges, and promotions. Perhaps a certai

Lack of training contributes to burnout, survey of preschool teachers finds
Studies have shown that early childhood education programs can have a positive impact on a child's success later in life. However, the annual turnover rate nationally for teachers of preschool-age children is approximately 30 percent. Now, researchers at the University of Missouri School of Medicine have surveyed early childhood teachers and identified factors that may lead to stress and burnout.

#Unfiltered: Instagram has become a haven for people making sensitive self-disclosures
Depression has a way of silencing its sufferers. Even in today's technology-connected society, people are hesitant to talk about their painful experiences and suffering for fear of being stigmatized. Though this has been the unfortunate norm for quite some time, new research from Drexel University is steadily uncovering the areas of social network sites where the sufferers are finding solace. In t

NASA balloon recovered a year after flight over Antarctica
For 12 days in January 2016, a football-field-sized balloon with a telescope hanging beneath it floated 24 miles above the Antarctic continent, riding the spiraling polar vortex. On Jan. 31, 2016, scientists sent the pre-planned command to cut the balloon - and the telescope parachuted to the ground in the Queen Maud region of Antarctica.

Researchers use laser-generated bubbles to create 3-D images in liquid
Researchers have developed a completely new type of display that creates 3D images by using a laser to form tiny bubbles inside a liquid "screen." Instead of rendering a 3D scene on a flat surface, the display itself is three-dimensional, a property known as volumetric. This allows viewers to see a 3D image in the columnar display from all angles without any 3D glasses or headsets.

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
Although stingless bees do not have a sting to fend off enemies, they are nonetheless able to defend their hives against attacks. Only four years ago it was discovered that a Brazilian bee species, the Jatai bee, has a soldier caste. The slightly larger fighters guard the entrance to the nest and grip intruders with their powerful mandibles in the event of an attack. Working in collaboration with

Dozy drivers pose big dilemma for next step in autonomous cars
Should we build cars that let drivers relax most of the time? Soporific test drives are highlighting risks in the road map, says Jamais Cascio

Hiring tool uses behavioural science to stop recruitment bias
The platform, which replaces CVs with a whole new way of recruiting, aims to remove bias – but won’t always lead to more diversity

Voyager 1 might have seen Enceladus’ icy plumes 25 years early
A space image-processing enthusiast claims that he’s found signs of Saturn’s moon’s majestic plumes from 1980 – decades before they were discovered

Someone Finally Mapped Cape Town’s Bewildering Taxi Network
For decades, Cape Town's commuters have learned to navigate the city's vast informal taxi network by word of mouth. Now they have a map.

Why Trump’s Attack on a California Railroad Should Trouble You
No matter where you live.

Taking manatees off the endangered species list doesn't mean we should stop protecting them
Animals Come for the sea cow pictures, stay for the environmental policy The fightin’ sea cows are making a comeback. Manatees have been on the endangered species list since 1972, but in the last few years they’ve been so abundant that they…

First Quantum Magnetic Resonance Microscope Made from Diamond
Human biochemistry works at the zeptolevel. Now an exotic new magnetic resonance microscope can watch what’s going on.

Nye sorteringsanlæg kan forhindre afbrænding af sort plast
Hvert år forbrændes tusinder af ton sort plast i stedet for at blive genanvendt, fordi sorteringsanlæggene ikke kan se, at det er plast. I Tyskland har et dansk projekt nu fundet en løsning på problemet.

Amerikaner arresteret efter terrortrusler på den anonyme Whisper-app
https://www.version2.dk/artikel/amerikaner-arresteret-efter-terrortrusler-paa-anonyme-whisper-app-1073700 En bruger af app'en Whisper er blevet arresteret kort efter, at han fremsatte trusler om terror.

Scientists close in on cracking 'Enigma Code' of common cold
Scientists say they are a step closer to cracking, what researchers have dubbed, the 'enigma code' of the common cold virus.

Study targets warm water rings that fuel hurricane intensification in the Caribbean Sea
A new study deployed 55 aircraft ocean instruments from the National Oceanographic Atmospheric Administration's WP-3D aircraft. The purpose of the scientific mission was to measure ocean temperature, salinity, and currents to understand the structure of these warm-water eddies.

Nursing home residents need more activities to help them thrive
In a survey of staff from 172 Swedish nursing homes, most residents had been outside the nursing home during the previous week, but only one-fifth had been on an outing or excursion.

Researchers ponder the shape of birds' eggs
The shape of birds' eggs varies considerably, for reasons that are unclear, outlines a new report.

Link between aging, devastating lung disease discovered
A new study has shown evidence linking the biology of aging with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease that impairs lung function and causes shortness of breath, fatigue, declining quality of life, and, ultimately, death. Researchers believe that these findings are the next step toward a possible therapy for individuals suffering from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Low snowpacks of 2014, 2015 may become increasingly common with warmer conditions
Oregon experienced very low snowpack levels in 2014 and historically low snowpack levels in 2015. Now a new study suggests that these occurrences may not be anomalous in the future and could become much more common if average temperatures warm just two degrees (Celsius).

Scientists find answer to Ice Age’s Laurentide paradox
Scientists have figured out an Ice Age paradox and their findings add to mounting evidence that climate change could bring higher seas than most models predict. Small spikes in the temperature of the ocean, rather than the air, likely drove the rapid disintegration cycles of the expansive ice sheet that once covered much of North America. The behavior of this ancient ice sheet—called Laurentide—h

When test-driving a new car, take the technology for a spin
Car shopping isn't just about kicking the tires anymore. It's also about testing the technology.

Liquid hydrogen may be way forward for sustainable air travel
Transport makes up around 20 percent of our energy use around the world—and that figure is set to grow, according to the International Energy Agency. With sustainable solutions in mind, a new study published by eminent physicist Jo Hermans in MRS Energy and Sustainability—A Review Journal (MRS E&S) looks at the energy efficiency of current modes of transport—from bicycles to buses, from air transp

Researchers create website to inform lima bean growers of downy mildew risk
One of the most important factors for lima bean growers in Delaware and throughout the world is the ability to accurately measure and forecast disease occurrence in their fields during the growing season.

Nanostraw doesn’t destroy cells as it samples their guts
Cells within our bodies divide and change over time, with thousands of chemical reactions occurring within each cell daily. This makes it difficult for scientists to understand what’s happening inside. New nanostraws offer a non-disruptive way to find out. A problem with the current method of cell sampling, called lysing, is that it ruptures the cell. Once the cell is destroyed, it can’t be sampl

'Radical' Muslims? The History of Salafists
Muslims from the Salafist tradition can often be seen as 'radical.' There is not much understanding of Salafism, its history and its diversity. Here's what it means to be a Salafist.

Official naming of surface features on Pluto and its satellites: First step approved
In 2015, in partnership with NASA's New Horizons mission and the SETI Institute, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) endorsed the Our Pluto naming campaign, which allowed the public to participate in the exploration of Pluto by proposing names for surface features on Pluto and its satellites that were still awaiting discovery. Each of the system's six worlds was designated a set of naming t

PI3K/mTOR inhibitors may be effective against some uterine sarcomas
The protein P-S6S240 may serve as an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with a hard-to-treat type of uterine sarcoma called leiomyosarcoma, and preclinical data suggest that patients whose tumors have this protein may respond to PI3K/mTOR inhibitors.

Study finds resistant infections rising, with longer hospital stays for US children
Infections caused by a type of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics are occurring more frequently in US children and are associated with longer hospital stays and a trend towards greater risk of death, according to a new study.

Tired teens 4.5 times more likely to commit crimes as adults
Teenagers who experience sleep problems and exhibit anti-social behavior are more likely to commit violent crimes as adults, new research concludes.

Organ-on-a-chip mimics heart's biomechanical properties
Scientists have created a three-dimensional organ-on-a-chip that can mimic the heart's amazing biomechanical properties in order to study cardiac disease, determine the effects that different drugs have on the heart and screen for new drugs to treat heart ailments.

How Sound Can Be an Ally or an Enemy of a Healthy Brain
A new technique for measuring our neuronal response to sound is yielding both good news and bad news

Xochimilco Journal: An Aquatic Paradise in Mexico, Pushed to the Edge of Extinction
Experts say that the exploitation of wetlands in southern Mexico City could lead to the destruction of the area’s bucolic canals within a few years.

A prescription with legs
Physician-delivered step count prescriptions, combined with the use of a pedometer, can lead to a 20 per cent increase in daily steps, as well as measurable health benefits, such as lower blood sugar and lower insulin resistance, for patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes, report researchers.

Hot spots of marine biodiversity most severely impacted by global warming
A new study aimed at identifying areas of highest conservation priority in the world's oceans found six 'hot spots of marine biodiversity' that are severely impacted by climate change and fishing pressures.

This tiny camera could give drones predator vision
Science It can be 3D printed in just one step A 3D-printed multi-lense camera can see stuff as eagles do. And it's super small.

Flat-footed competitors have fighting advantage
A heel-down posture—a feature that separates great apes, including humans, from other primates—confers advantages in fighting, according to a new study published today in the journal Biology Open.

Is back pain killing us?
Older people who suffer from back pain have a 13 per cent increased risk of dying from any cause, research has found. The study of 4390 Danish twins aged more than 70 years investigated whether spinal pain increased the rate of all-cause and disease-specific cardiovascular mortality.

Dating the undatables
Asian Horned frogs account for approximately half of the ancient family of frogs called Megophryidae. This group was previously estimated to have originated 100-126 million years ago (mya). Frogs of this family hopped alongside the famed Velociraptors and other dinosaurs during the Cretaceous period (145-66 mya). Despite the fact that these animals have been around for a long time, little is known

What Is 5G, and When Do I Get It?
The mobile industry is buzzing about this next generation of high-speed wireless service.

Can this tool turn children’s BMI results into action?
Parents are more likely to change their child’s lifestyle if schools offer educational materials alongside body mass index screening results, a new study shows. Some parents in the study received only BMI results, while others had access to the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool, an online tool designed to help parents evaluate their home environments and practices. “The FNPA a

For Hospitals That Can’t Afford a Surgical Robot, This $500 Device Could Fit the Bill
A tool that mounts to a surgeon’s arm could help with precise medical procedures at small or remote hospitals.

What, You Can’t Tell Two Lemurs Apart? Computers Can
New software that sees spots and stripes are helping biologists track animals in the wild without the tranquilizer guns and radio collars.

Review: Belkin Wemo Mini Smart Plug
Belkin's $35 smart plug works with any regular wall socket, adding Wi-Fi capability and app control to any appliance in your home.

Scientists solve puzzle of turning graphite into diamond
(Phys.org)—Researchers have finally answered a question that has eluded scientists for years: when exposed to moderately high pressures, why does graphite turn into hexagonal diamond (also called lonsdaleite) and not the more familiar cubic diamond, as predicted by theory?

Computing with biochemical circuits made easy
Electronic circuits are found in almost everything from smartphones to spacecraft and are useful in a variety of computational problems from simple addition to determining the trajectories of interplanetary satellites. At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA.

Study targets warm water rings that fuel hurricane intensification in the Caribbean Sea
Last year's devastating category-5 hurricane—Matthew—may be one of many past examples of a tropical storm fueled by massive rings of warm water that exist in the upper reaches of the Caribbean Sea.

Effective altruism is re-inventing how we do good – can it work?
Philanthropy is full of fuzzy uncertainties. A new approach promises a scientific revolution in the art of giving. Are there hidden dangers?

Mathematics supports a new way to classify viruses based on structure
Professor Robert Sinclair at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) and Professor Dennis Bamford and Dr. Janne Ravantti from the University of Helsinki have found new evidence to support a classification system for viruses based on viral structure.

Kronik: Elbilen er meget mere end et skatteanliggende
Elbiler

DIY Brain Awareness Week Arts and Crafts
As you look toward Brain Awareness Week next month (March 13-19), think about joining lab tours and lectures, but also consider art contests and brain hats . Why not infuse your Brain Awareness Week celebration with a little Do-It-Yourself arts and crafts? A video of how to knit a brain hat popped up in my Facebook feed a few weeks ago, and were I a knitter, I’d surely be sporting one come March

A new dimension in chemical nanoimaging
Researchers report the development of hyperspectral infrared nanoimaging based on Fourier transform infrared nanospectroscopy (nano-FTIR), enabling highly sensitive spectroscopic imaging of chemical compositions with nanoscale spatial resolution.

You are living inside a massive musical instrument – and here's what it sounds like
The ancients believed that the Earth was surrounded by celestial spheres, which produced divine music when they moved. We lived, so to speak, in a huge musical instrument. This may sound silly but modern science has proved them right to a certain extent. Satellites recording sound waves resonating with the Earth's magnetosphere – the magnetic bubble that protects us from space radiation – show tha

The Download, Feb 23, 2017: Immunotherapy Upgrade, Tesla’s Next Challenge, and Locating the Dark Web
The most fascinating and important news in technology and innovation delivered straight to your inbox, every day.

Sum of their parts: Researchers use math to foster environmental restoration
Resource management boundaries seldom align with environmental systems, which can lead to scale mismatch or spatial misalignments. Researchers employ analytic modeling to counter this challenge and foster collaboration and efficient coordination of stakeholders' joint restoration efforts.

Garnet crystal microstructures formed during ancient earthquake provide evidence for seismic slip rates along a fault
(Phys.org)—A team of researchers from Norway, France and the Netherlands has found a new way to identify and measure seismic slips that occurred along fault lines during ancient earthquakes. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the team describes their study of garnet crystals found along a fault zone and what they discovered.

Supercomputer tests ways to divert blood from aneurysm
Engineers have used high-performance computing to examine the best way to treat an aneurysm. To reduce blood flow into aneurysms, surgeons often insert a flow diverter—tiny tubes made of weaved metal, like stents—across the opening. The reduced blood flow into the aneurysm minimizes the risk of a rupture, researchers say. But, if the opening, or neck, of an aneurysm is large, surgeons will someti

A Super-Common Crypto Tool Turns Out to Be Super-Insecure
NIST has been warning about vulnerabilities in its SHA-1 cryptographic hash function for years, but some services still use it and the threats are growing.

Forget Weather Apps: Measure the Wind Yourself With an Old Electric Motor
You can build an anemometer with an electric motor and a fan blade. Here's how.

A Look Inside Britain’s Plucky (and Criminally Overlooked) Space Program
A photographer combines his love of space and the UK in one remarkable project.

A New Model for Defeating Cancer: CAR T Cells
Some advanced cancers can now be successfully treated by synthetic immune cells that are more powerful and longer-lasting than any found in the body

Who Was Detective X? 85 years after the Lindbergh kidnapping, the work of an early forensic scientist comes to light
It was called the Trial of the Century, and on the night it ended, the Hunterdon County Courthouse in Flemington, New Jersey, was surrounded by thousands of people awaiting the verdict. When it came, camera operators on the newsreel trucks launched flares that lit up the night sky and illuminated for their cameras the jeering crowd below. The defendant, Bruno Richard Hauptmann, was found guilty of

Getting the inside story on products with computed tomography
It is often the case that a valuable new industrial capability brings with it a whole new set of challenges for measurement science—and thus, inevitably, for NIST.

Study of ancient skulls suggest there may have been multiple migrations into the Americas
(Phys.org)—A trio of researchers affiliated with institutions in the U.S., Europe and South America has found evidence that suggests the native people of South America likely arrived from more than one place. - imaging technology to skulls

Broadband internet can help rural communities connect – if they use it
Being able to connect to the internet is crucial for many rural Americans. It allows them to buy goods and services that may not be available locally; market their own goods and services to a much larger area; connect remotely with health services that previously required several hours' worth of driving; and even telecommute.

There are two very different kinds of AI, and the difference is important
Technology Most of today’s AI is designed to solve specific problems Artificial intelligence can solve many problems, but it won’t replicate the human brain anytime soon.

Bring on the Evidence: A new regulatory approach to CAM
Complementary and alternative medicine is popular, but it's poorly regulated, and most products lack good evidence of efficacy. A new approach proposed in Australia may help consumers make more informed, science-based health decisions.

Here's the best way to shuffle a pack of cards – with a little help from some maths
Shuffling a pack of cards isn't as easy as you think, not if you want to truly randomise the cards. Most people will give a pack a few shuffles with the overhand or riffle methods (where the pack is split and the two halves are interweaved). But research has shown this isn't enough to produce a sufficiently random order to make sure the card game being played is completely fair and to prevent peop

Introducing Xenos, NIST's largest coordinate measuring machine
When you walk into the laboratory that houses NIST's newest coordinate measuring machine (CMM), you might be puzzled at first about how engineers got it into the room.

CWI, Google announce first collision for Industry Security Standard SHA-1
Today, researchers at the Dutch research institute CWI and Google jointly announce that they have broken the SHA-1 internet security standard in practice. This industry standard is used for digital signatures and file integrity verification, which secure credit card transactions, electronic documents, GIT open-source software repositories and software distribution. CWI cryptanalyst Marc Stevens sa

Flotte EliteForsk-priser til SUND
Hele tre EliteForsk-priser blev i dag overrakt til forskere fra SUND. To talentfulde ph.d.-studerende...

Female bosses favour gay and lesbian job-seekers, research finds
Women are more likely to hire gay and lesbian job applicants over equally-qualified straight candidates, according to a study led by the University of Sussex.

Companies located near an IRS office more likely to face an audit, avoid more taxes
Geographic proximity to Internal Revenue Service offices makes it more likely public companies will face an audit, but those companies also engage in greater tax avoidance, according to a study led by a University of Kansas accounting researcher.

Diving deep into the dolphin genome could benefit human health
In movies and TV shows, dolphins are often portrayed as heroes who save humans through remarkable feats of strength and tenacity. Now dolphins could save the day for humans in real life, too – with the help of emerging technology that can measure thousands of proteins and an improved database full of genetic data.

Straight Out of Sci-Fi: Hoverbike 'Surfs' Through the Air in Test
The Scorpion-3 is the first manned quadcopter that has undergone testing.

Barcode scanner microscope films neurons firing
Engineers at ANU have built an advanced microscope using barcode laser scanner technology that can film moving blood cells and neurons firing in living animals.

Researchers pave the way for ionotronic nanodevices
Ionotronic devices rely on charge effects based on ions instead of or in addition to electrons. These devices open new opportunities for creating electrically switchable memories. However, there are still many technical challenges to overcome before this new kind of memory can be produced.

What video gamers can teach us about customer engagement
Customer engagement is one of those buzzwords that's often talked about, difficult to define and even harder to measure. But it's critical to figure out for makers of video games, who operate in a noisy, crowded and competitive industry.

Does Pluto have the ingredients for life?
Pluto has long been viewed as a distant, cold and mostly dead world, but the first spacecraft to pass by it last year revealed many surprises about this distant dwarf planet.

Researcher encouraged by results of new research on sexual assault kit processing
Since 2011, BYU nursing professor Julie Valentine has been researching the issues surrounding sexual assault kit processing and has been working with law enforcement agencies to improve the process.

Cave-Dwelling Snail Named for D&D Goddess of Darkness
A new species of land snail that lives underground in Brazil was named for a character in the popular role-playing tabletop game, Dungeons & Dragons.

Large-scale experiment on the rural Olympic Peninsula to test innovations in forest management
Forest ecosystems are accustomed to change. Long before humans started intervening, disturbances such as fire, wind storms and diseases wracked segments of the landscape, killing off swathes of trees and providing spaces for regrowth of the forest.

Tiny particles with a big, cool role to play in microscopy
Researchers at UTS, as part of a large international collaboration, have made a breakthrough in the development of compact, low-cost and practical optical microscopy to achieve super-resolution imaging on a scale 10 times smaller than can currently be achieved with conventional microscopy.

Republicans Are Trying to Let Internet Providers Sell Your Data
The Affordable Care Act is far from the only Obama-era policy Republicans want to take down. A rollback of FCC privacy rules could affect millions.

Now Anyone Can Deploy Google’s Troll-Fighting AI
Google subsidiary Jigsaw is now offering developers access to an API for its AI-based detector for abusive comments.

Common roundworm found to farm the bacteria it eats
A common roundworm widely studied for its developmental biology and neuroscience, also might be one of the most surprising examples of the eat-local movement. Princeton University researchers have found that the organisms have a sure-fire method of ensuring a steady supply of a bacteria they eat—they grow their own.

Sounding rocket launches to study auroras
A NASA Black Brant IX sounding rocket soars skyward into an aurora over Alaska following a 5:13 a.m. EST, Feb. 22, 2017 launch from the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. The rocket carried an Ionospheric Structuring: In Situ and Groundbased Low Altitude StudieS (ISINGLASS) instrumented payload examining the structure of an aurora. ISINGLASS includes the launch of two rockets with identical payl

How South Australia can function reliably while moving to 100% renewable power
Despite the criticism levelled at South Australia over its renewable energy ambitions, the state is nevertheless aiming to be carbon neutral by mid-century, which will mean moving to 100% renewable electricity over the next 15-20 years.

SpaceX Cargo Craft Is Now In Space Station's Grip, One Day After Aborted Docking
NASA had originally planned for the Dragon craft to reach the space station three days ago. It's carrying crew supplies and a range of scientific experiments.

Survey reveals drastic decline of waterbirds in Irrawaddy River
Over the last 14 years, waterbirds in Myanmar's Irrawddy River declined by 60% to 90% depending on the species.

SF i Syddanmark: Læger skal selv bestemme arbejdstid
Det skal være muligt for blandt andre læger i Region Syddanmark selv at bestemme, hvor meget eller hvor lidt de vil arbejde. Sådan lyder et nyt forslag fra SF.

SpaceX makes good on space station delivery a little late
SpaceX made good on a 250-mile-high delivery at the International Space Station on Thursday, after fixing a navigation problem that held up the shipment a day.

Hårtynd fiber åbner nye muligheder for hjerneforskning
Forskere fra MIT har for første gang benyttet en 200 mikrometer smalt og fleksibelt fiber til at sende elektriske, kemiske og optiske signaler til hjernen.

Most scientists 'can't replicate studies by their peers'
Science is facing a "reproducibility crisis" as scientists fail to reproduce others' work, it is claimed.

Forskere modtager pris for bærbar ultralydsscanner
De to DTU-forskere Jørgen Arendt Jensen og Erik Vilain Thomsen modtager i dag Innovationsfondens Grand Solution Pris for at have udviklet en bærbar ultralydsscanner.

Tre bevillinger til diabeteslæge
Læge ved AU og AUH Esben Søndergaard modtager tre bevillinger til forskning i type 2 diabetes.

Most wood energy schemes are a 'disaster' for climate change
A new report says that using wood pellets to generate low-carbon electricity is a highly flawed policy.

Does the nature of Reddit fuel anchoring bias? Or worse, normalize and reward it?

The EU’s renewable energy policy is making global warming worse
Independent report concludes the massive subsidies for wood energy are increasing greenhouse emissions, and are a waste of public money

Professor has taken 'selfie' every day for last 30 years
Long before they were called selfies, Karl Baden snapped a simple black and white photo of himself. Then he repeated it, every day, for the next three decades.

Nobel-winning economist Kenneth J. Arrow dies at 95
Kenneth J. Arrow, the youngest-ever winner of a Nobel prize for economics, whose theories on risk, innovation and the basic mathematics of markets have influenced thinking on everything from voting to health insurance to high finance, has died. He was 95.

Eliteforsk-prisen 2017: Tre på stribe
Professor Mikael Rask Madsen, Det Juridiske Fakultet, professor Klaus Høyer, Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige...

Professor Mikael Rask Madsen modtager EliteForsk-pris for banebrydende forskning i international ret
Juraprofessor Mikael Rask Madsen modtager EliteForskprisen for sin banebrydende forskning i internationale...

Oil and gas wastewater spills alter microbes in West Virginia waters
Wastewater from oil and gas operations—including fracking for shale gas—at a West Virginia site altered microbes downstream, according to a Rutgers-led study.

Rigsrevisionen: Huller i hospitalernes digitalisering kan være farlig for patienterne
https://www.version2.dk/artikel/region-hovedstaden-sender-stadig-ikke-information-med-patienter-elektronisk-1073662 Patientjournaler i Region Hovedstaden bliver ikke sendt elektronisk i samme omfang som i resten af landet. Og brugen af digitalt medicinkort halter også.

Matematiker i særklasse får Eliteforsk-pris
Torsdag den 23. februar modtager professor Søren Galatius fra Institut for Matematiske Fag på...

'Magical thinking' on Heathrow expansion
A third runway at Heathrow can only be justified if it does not breach climate change laws, MPs say.

AI learns to write its own code by stealing from other programs
Software called DeepCoder has solved simple programming challenges by piecing together bits of borrowed code

Bacterial Communication
http://www.ibioseminars.org/ Bacteria communicate with chemical languages in a process called quorum sensing. Bonnie Bassler explains the role of this communication in the symbiotic relationship between bacteria and squid. Quorum sensing is also critical to the ability of bacteria to cause disease. Watch the whole lecture at www.ibioseminars.org. From: iBiology

Ancient history of regeneration
Alejandro Sanchez-Alvarado presents examples of regeneration in the myths and writing from ancient Greeks and Romans. See the entire video at www.iBioSeminars.org. From: iBiology

Trypanosoma cruzi:Host cell infection and intracellular replication
Excellent video of Trypanosoma cruzi promastigotes infecting host cells, transforming to amastigotes and undergoing replication. Shown by Norma Andrews. See the entire video at www.iBioSeminars.org From: iBiology

HIV: A deadly virus
David Baltimore describes the lifecycle of HIV and explains why it is such a deadly virus. See the entire seminar at www.iBioSeminars.org. From: iBiology

Molecular Genetics and Cancer
Mary Beckerle explains that molecular genetics make it possible to determine which genes are turned on or off in different tumors and she discusses the implications for cancer treatment. See the whole lecture at www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiology

Human Pathogens - Stanley Falkow (Stanford University)
Humans are host to innumerable microbes such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa. worms and insects. Stanley Falkow describes how some of these organisms become pathogens. See the entire lecture at www.ibioseminars.org. From: iBiology

Embryonic Stem Cells
Elaine Fuchs defines embryonic stem cells, explains how mouse ESC are obtained and describes the potential that these cells hold for regenerative medicine. Watch the whole lecture at www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiology

Long-lived C. elegans Mutants
A mutation in the Daf-2 gene dramatically extends the life span of C. elegans as explained by Cynthia Kenyon. Watch the entire lecture at www.ibioseminars.org. From: iBiology

Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis
An animation of the process of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is presented by Richard Losick. Watch the whole lecture at www.ibioseminars.org. From: iBiology

Preparing for Cell Division
Dick McIntosh describes the incredibly complex set of events that must occur before a cell can replicate and divide. See the whole seminar at www.ibioseminars.org. From: iBiology

What controls the size of an animal?
Local versus systemic control of animal and organ size are discussed by Martin Raff. See the whole seminar at www.ibioseminars.org. From: iBiology

Synaptic Vesicle Fusion in Nerve Cells
Randy Schekman explains how vesicles carrying neurotransmitters dock and fuse with the nerve cell plasma membrane releasing their contents into the synapse. See the whole seminar at www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiology

Eric Wieschaus (Princeton/HHMI): Drosophila Embryo Development
Eric Wieschaus describes the events leading from a single celled Drosophila embryo to an embryo with many cells with distinct functions. View the whole seminar go to www.ibioseminars.org. From: iBiology

Ari Helenius (ETH Zurich) Part 1: Virus entry
http://ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/ari-helenius-part-1.html Viruses are extremely simple and small yet they are responsible for many of the worlds diseases. A virus particle consists of only a genome, a protein coat or capsid, and sometimes a surrounding lipid envelope. To replicate, a virus must successfully enter a host cell, uncoat its genome, and appropriate the host cell machine

Ari Helenius (ETH Zurich) Part 2: Endocytosis and Penetration
http://ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/ari-helenius-part-1.html In the second lecture, the next steps in viral infection are described. Endocytosis of plasma membrane bound viruses can occur via a number of mechanisms including caveolar, clathrin, non-clathrin, or lipid raft mediated pathways. The internalized virus is enclosed in an endosome that may undergo increasing acidification res

Ari Helenius (ETH Zurich) Part 3: Open Sesame: Cell Entry and Vaccinia Virus
http://ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/ari-helenius-part-1.html Part 3 focuses on a single virus, the Vaccinia virus, as a model for cell binding, signaling and endocytosis. Fluorescently labeled Vaccinia viruses bind to and surf along host cell filopodia. Helenius lab members noticed that when Vaccinia, unlike other viruses, reached the surface of the cell body it caused the plasma memb

Robert Lefkowitz (Duke University) Part 1 Seven Transmembrane Receptors
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cell-biology/robert-lefkowitz-part-1.html In the first segment of the lecture, the history of discovery in the field of seven transmembrane receptor research over the past forty years is reviewed. Highlights include overcoming initial skepticism that the receptors even existed; isolating the receptors as discrete biochemical entities and demonstrating their li

Robert Lefkowitz (Duke University) Part 2 Beta-arrestins
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cell-biology/robert-lefkowitz-part-2.html In part 2 of the lecture, recent discoveries about how Beta-arrestins not only desensitize the receptors but also mediate their endocytosis, as well as independent signaling pathways, are reviewed. Also covered is how these new discoveries provide a basis for designing novel classes of pharmacological agents which can

Elizabeth Blackburn (UCSF) Part 1: The Roles of Telomeres and Telomerase
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/genetics-gene-regulation/elizabeth-blackburn-part-1.html Lecture Overview Telomerase, a specialized ribonucleprotein reverse transcriptase, is important for long-term eukaryotic cell proliferation and genomic stability, because it replenishes the DNA at telomeres. Thus depending on cell type telomerase partially or completely (depending on cell type) counterac

Elizabeth Blackburn (UCSF) Part 2: Telomeres and Telomerase in Human Stem Cells and in Cancer
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/genetics-gene-regulation/elizabeth-blackburn-part-2.html Telomerase, a specialized ribonucleprotein reverse transcriptase, is important for long-term eukaryotic cell proliferation and genomic stability, because it replenishes the DNA at telomeres. Thus depending on cell type telomerase partially or completely (depending on cell type) counteracts the progressiv

Sydney Brenner Part 1 Genomes Tell Us About the Past
Lecture Overview By looking at the light from distant galaxies and having well-established calibration methods, astrophysics can make hypotheses about the history of our universe. Do we have similar "rulers" in biology that could allow us to reconstruct the remote past and the evolution of species on this planet? The answer is likely "yes" and the clues are undoubtedly contained in the many whole

Sydney Brenner Part 2 Genomes Tell Us About the Past contd
Lecture Overview By looking at the light from distant galaxies and having well-established calibration methods, astrophysics can make hypotheses about the history of our universe. Do we have similar "rulers" in biology that could allow us to reconstruct the remote past and the evolution of species on this planet? The answer is likely "yes" and the clues are undoubtedly contained in the many whole

Carolyn Bertozzi (UC Berkeley) Part 1: Chemical Glycobiology
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/biophysics-chemical-biology/carolyn-bertozzi-part-1.html Part 1 A large part of an organism's complexity is not encoded by its genome but results from post-translational modification. Glycosylation, or the addition of sugar molecules to a protein is an example of such a modification. These sugars, or glycans, are often complex, branched molecules specific to p

Don Ganem (Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research) Part 1: Kaposis Sarcoma: The Disease
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/microbiology/don-ganem-part-1.html In 1872, Moritz Kaposi first described a disease that included pigmented skin tumors and in some cases tumors of the viscera. While KS has been endemic in some areas of the world for many years, a highly aggressive and deadly form of the disease emerged concurrently with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. KS is a very unusual cancer incl

Don Ganem (Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research) Part 2: The Virus
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/microbiology/don-ganem-part-2.html In 1872, Moritz Kaposi first described a disease that included pigmented skin tumors and in some cases tumors of the viscera. While KS has been endemic in some areas of the world for many years, a highly aggressive and deadly form of the disease emerged concurrently with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. KS is a very unusual cancer incl

Don Ganem (Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research) Part 4: Is KSHV Latency the Whole story?
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/microbiology/don-ganem-part-4.html In 1872, Moritz Kaposi first described a disease that included pigmented skin tumors and in some cases tumors of the viscera. While KS has been endemic in some areas of the world for many years, a highly aggressive and deadly form of the disease emerged concurrently with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. KS is a very unusual cancer incl

Nevan Krogan (UCSF) - Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for elucidating the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. More recently, it has been used to characterize biological material, in particular proteins and protein complexes, in a variety of organisms. In this lecture, we will review the underlying principles of how a mass spectrometer works, discuss up to date instrumentation that is presently being us

Richard McIntosh (U. Colorado, Boulder) Part 1: Separating Duplicated Chromosomes
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/richard-mcintosh.html The goal of these three talks is to define the problems that a cell faces as it prepares for division and to describe some of the ways it solves them. In Part 1, both the length and amount of DNA are presented as problems for chromosome segregation, particularly in eukaryotic cells. The actions of cohesins and of chromosome

Richard McIntosh (U. Colorado, Boulder) Part 2: Understanding Mitosis through Experimentation
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/richard-mcintosh.html The second lecture describes some key experiments showing the dynamics of a formed mitotic spindle and the ways these may contribute to accurate chromosome motion. Experiments that reveal aspects of the processes by which chromosomes attach to the spindle are presented. Mitotic motors are introduced and discussed in the lig

Ira Mellman (Genentech) Part 1: Cellular Basis of the Immune Response
http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/cell-bio-a-med/ira-mellman.html The immune system is charged with protecting us from invading microorganisms, a task that falls to a complex array of highly specialized cell types spread throughout the body but that must work together as an integrated system. How they accomplish and perform their functions can be wonderfully understood by probing the basic me

Ira Mellman (Genentech) Part 2: Antigen Presentation and Dendritic Cells
http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/cell-bio-a-med/ira-mellman.html The immune response integrates two distinct systems of innate and adaptive immunity discovered over 100 years ago. Linking these two arms of the immune response is the task of a comparatively recently identified cell type, the dendritic cell. Dendritic cells have the capacity to detect the conserved microbial products that acti

Marc Kirschner (Harvard U) Part 3: How Chordates Got Their Chord
Part 3: How chordates got their chord, I discuss how the overall body plan of vertebrates, arose from the invertebrates based on knowledge of the commonalities in their developmental mechanisms. Here again, the acorn worm, offers the key comparison, being close enough to us to share some recognizable features, but far enough away to indicate the direction from whence we came. See more at www.ibio

Marc Kirschner (Harvard U) Part 2: Telling the Back from the Front
Part 2: Telling the back from the front or what the chordates invented, I discuss why we look like invertebrate animals turned upside down, i.e. vertebrates have their central nervous system on their backs and invertebrates have it on their bellies. See more at www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiology

Marc Kirschner (Harvard U) Part 1: The Origin of the Vertebrate Nervous System
Modern cell and developmental biology has a lot to contribute to our understanding of the deep history of animal origins, which until recently has been largely the province of paleontology. In this set of lectures, I hope to show how recent studies by a very small group of scientists on a virtually unknown phylum of marine organisms, the hemichordates, has helped explain some of the major mysteri

Nicole LeDouarin (Collège de France) Part 3: Neural Crest Contribution to Craniofacial and Brain Dev
The neural crest (NC) is a transitory structure of the Vertebrate embryo. It forms when the neural tube closes through the epithelio- mesenchymal transition of the cells in the joining neural folds. Its constitutive cells are endowed of migratory capacities and are highly pluripotent. NC cells migrate in the developing embryo along definite pathways, at precise periods of time during embryogenesi

Nicole LeDouarin (Collège de France) Pt 2: The Role of the Neural Crest in Head Dev & Vertebrate Evo
The neural crest (NC) is a transitory structure of the Vertebrate embryo. It forms when the neural tube closes through the epithelio- mesenchymal transition of the cells in the joining neural folds. Its constitutive cells are endowed of migratory capacities and are highly pluripotent. NC cells migrate in the developing embryo along definite pathways, at precise periods of time during embryogenesi

Nicole LeDouarin (Collège de France) Part 1: The Neural Crest in Vertebrate Development
http://www.ibiology.org The neural crest (NC) is a transitory structure of the Vertebrate embryo. It forms when the neural tube closes through the epithelio- mesenchymal transition of the cells in the joining neural folds. Its constitutive cells are endowed of migratory capacities and are highly pluripotent. NC cells migrate in the developing embryo along definite pathways, at precise periods of

Don Ganem (Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research) Part 3: KSHV Latency and KS Pathogenesis
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/microbiology/don-ganem-part-3.html In 1872, Moritz Kaposi first described a disease that included pigmented skin tumors and in some cases tumors of the viscera. While KS has been endemic in some areas of the world for many years, a highly aggressive and deadly form of the disease emerged concurrently with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. KS is a very unusual cancer incl

Richard Losick (Harvard) Part 1: Spore Formation in Bacillus Subtilis
http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/richard-losick.html How do simple cells differentiate, assemble into communities, and cope with change? Losick's seminar addresses these questions in the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Part I is an overview of how B. subtilis makes a spore. From: iBiology

Richard Losick (Harvard) Part 2: New Research on Multicellularity
http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/richard-losick.html Part II presents research on the capacity of B. subtilis cells to form architecturally complex communities. From: iBiology

Richard Losick (Harvard) Part 3: Stochasticity and Cell Fate
http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/richard-losick.html Part III presents research showing that B. subtilis uses a bet hedging strategy for coping with uncertainty. From: iBiology

Stephen Mayo (Cal Tech) Part 1: Protein Design by Computation
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/biophysics-chemical-biology/stephen-mayo-part-1.html In this lecture, I discuss the challenges of designing new proteins that fold into a particular structure or perform a particular function. One method is to computationally design a protein based solely upon our knowledge of amino acids and protein folding, a hard task but one which has had recent successes.

Stephen Mayo (Cal Tech) Part 2: Designing Protein Libraries
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/biophysics-chemical-biology/stephen-mayo-part-2.html In this lecture, I discuss the challenges of designing new proteins that fold into a particular structure or perform a particular function. One method is to computationally design a protein based solely upon our knowledge of amino acids and protein folding, a hard task but one which has had recent successes.

Jeremy Nathans (Johns Hopkins) Part 1A: Photoreceptors and Image Processing
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/neuroscience/jeremy-nathans.html In this set of lectures, Jeremy Nathans explores the molecular mechanisms within the retina that mediate the first steps in vision. The first lecture focuses on the structure of the light sensing receptors, the intracellular signals that are triggered by light absorption, and the ways in which the retina extracts information fr

Jeremy Nathans (Johns Hopkins) Part 1B: Photoreceptors and Image Processing
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/neuroscience/jeremy-nathans.html In this set of lectures, Jeremy Nathans explores the molecular mechanisms within the retina that mediate the first steps in vision. The first lecture focuses on the structure of the light sensing receptors, the intracellular signals that are triggered by light absorption, and the ways in which the retina extracts information fr

Jeremy Nathans (Johns Hopkins) Part 2: Human Color Vision and its Variations
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/neuroscience/jeremy-nathans.html In this set of lectures, Jeremy Nathans explores the molecular mechanisms within the retina that mediate the first steps in vision. The second lecture focuses on the photoreceptors that mediate human color vision and the molecular basis for the common inherited anomalies of color vision. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org

Jeremy Nathans (Johns Hopkins) Part 3: The Evolution of Trichromatic Color Vision
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/neuroscience/jeremy-nathans.html In this set of lectures, Jeremy Nathans explores the molecular mechanisms within the retina that mediate the first steps in vision. The third lecture describes recent work on the evolution of trichromatic color vision in humans and our primate relatives. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiology

Eva Nogales (UC Berkeley): Introduction to Electron Microscopy
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-techniques/eva-nogales.html Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) offers the possibility of visualizing biological structures at resolution well beyond that of light microscopy. Whether you are interested in the ultrastructure of cells and organelles, or in the detailed molecular structure of biological macromolecules, different modalities of TEM can gene

Trudi Schupbach (Princeton Univ) Part 3 Gurken Gradient and Follicle Cell Response
The third part of the lecture focuses on the spatial information that is conveyed by the oocyte to the surrounding follicle cells. I discuss how the spatially restricted activation of the EGF receptor by the signaling molecule, Gurken, is relayed into a cascade of information that ultimately sets up the dorso-ventral axis of the embryo. I explain how we use genetic mosaicism in the follicle epith

Trudi Schupbach (Princeton Univ) Part 2 Gurken RNA localization
In the second part of the lecture I will introduce our ongoing efforts to understand axis formation in Drosophila oogenesis at a molecular level. In the first part of the lecture, I introduced the localized signaling molecule, Gurken. The RNA that encodes Gurken accumulates in a very restricted area of the oocyte. This localization signals spatial information to the surrounding follicle cells. I

Trudi Schupbach (Princeton Univ) Part 1 Axes formation in the Drosophila Egg
How do complex multicellular organisms develop from single celled eggs with a single nucleus? We study this question in the fruit fly, Drosophila. In these insects, as in many other organisms, the major body plan is predetermined during oogenesis, or egg development. In the first part of the lecture, I will give an introduction to oogenesis in Drosophila, and the techniques we use to find genes t

Richard McIntosh (U. Colorado, Boulder) Part 3: Moving Chromosome to the Spindle Poles: Anaphase A
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/richard-mcintosh.html The third lecture presents evidence, largely from McIntosh's lab, that shows how microtubule depolymerization can move chromosomes in vitro and explores the nature of some of the protein complexes that can couple chromosomes to microtubules and take advantage of this reaction. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org From: i

Bonnie Bassler (Princeton) Part 2: Vibrio Cholerae Quorum Sensing and Novel Antibiotics
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/chemicalbiologybiophysics/besslar/bonnie-bassler.html Bacteria, primitive single-celled organisms, communicate with chemical languages that allow them to synchronize their behavior and thereby act as enormous multi-cellular organisms. This process is called quorum sensing and it enables bacteria to successfully infect and cause disease in plants, animals, and

Roger Beachy (Danforth Center) Part 1: Biology of Plant Virus Infection
This seminar describes the cell and molecular biology of plant virus infection. The first lecture will discuss how virus replication centers are set up in plants and how viruses use host cell mechanisms to facilitate cell to cell movement and eventual pathogenesis. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiology

Roger Beachy (Danforth Center) Part 2: Genetic Engineering for Virus Resistance in Plants
In the second part of the lecture, Beachy explains how different biotechnology strategies can be used to produce crops resistant to specific viral infections. See more at http://www.ibioseminars. org From: iBiology

Karel Svoboda (HHMI) Part 1: Optical studies of individual synapses
Neurons are connected to form complex networks by tiny junctions called synapses. Svoboda reviews the process of synaptic transmission and the methods traditionally used to image neurons and their synapses. He then describes powerful new methodologies that allow synaptic transmission and calcium signaling in individual synapses to be measured in intact tissue. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.

Karel Svoboda (HHMI) Part 2: Plasticity and signaling of single synapses
In the second part of this lecture, Svoboda focuses on how the imaging techniques introduced in his first lecture can be used to study calcium signaling and downstream pathways such as Ras, at the level of single synapses. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiology

David Roos (U Penn) Part 1: Biology of Apicomplexan Parasites
http://ibioseminars.org/lectures/global-health-a-energy/david-s-roos.html There are more than 5000 species of single-celled eukaryotes in the biological phylum known as the Apicomplexa, including the parasites responsible for malaria, neurological birth defects, and opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS. These ancient protozoa provide a unique window into the evolution of subcellular

David Roos (U Penn) Part 2: The apicomplexan plastid
http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/global-health-a-energy/david-s-roos.html Antibiotics are effective because they kill bacteria without harming humans and other eukaryotes (organisms with cells that contain nuclei). So why are the eukaryotic parasites responsible for malaria and toxoplasmosis killed by drugs like clindamycin? Multidisciplinary studies integrating molecular genetics, cell biol

David Roos (U Penn) Part 3A: Designing and mining pathogen genome databases
http://ibioseminars.org/lectures/global-health-a-energy/david-s-roos/david-s-roos-part-3a.html With the emergence of genomic-scale datasets representing all of the genes in the genome, all of the proteins in a cell or tissue, and all of the interactions and signals in an organism, biologists are increasingly faced with the challenge of how to store, integrate, and interrogate this information. Ho

David Roos (U Penn) Part 3B: Designing and mining pathogen genome databases
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/global-health-a-energy/david-s-roos/david-s-roos-part-3b.html With the emergence of genomic-scale datasets representing all of the genes in the genome, all of the proteins in a cell or tissue, and all of the interactions and signals in an organism, biologists are increasingly faced with the challenge of how to store, integrate, and interrogate this information

Eric Wieschaus (Princeton) Part 1: Patterning Development in the Embryo
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/dev-bio-a-evolution/eric-wieschaus.html Following fertilization, the single celled embryo undergoes a number of mitotic divisions to produce a ball of cells called a blastula or blastoderm. Although these cells are all genetically identical, they gradually begin to express different gene products that reflect the regions of the adult body they will form. In my

Eric Wieschaus (Princeton) Part 2: Stability of Morphogen Gradients & Movement of Molecules
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/dev-bio-a-evolution/eric-wieschaus.html In my second lecture I describe experiments using EGFP tagged Bicoid to follow Bcd gradient establishment in living embryos, and to test various aspects of the simple model. Despite continuous synthesis of new Bcd protein at the anterior end of the egg, we find that the concentration of Bcd in nuclei at any given point a

Eric Wieschaus (Princeton) Part 3: Evolution of Bicoid-based Patterning in the Diptera
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/dev-bio-a-evolution/eric-wieschaus.html Although Bcd plays an essential role of Drosophila development, it is a recently evolved addition to the higher Dipteran lineage. In the final section of my lecture I will discuss how Bcd has continued to provide robust positional information in higher diptera as specific features such as egg size change during evolution

Bonnie Bassler (Princeton) Part 1: Bacterial Communication via Quorum Sensing
http://www.ibiology.org Bacteria, primitive single-celled organisms, communicate with chemical languages that allow them to synchronize their behavior and thereby act as enormous multi-cellular organisms. This process is called quorum sensing and it enables bacteria to successfully infect and cause disease in plants, animals, and humans. Investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying quoru

Jim Wells and Michelle Arkin(UCSF) Part 1: Introduction to Drug Discovery
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-techniques/james-wellsmichelle-arkin.html The modern drug discovery process integrates our deepest understanding of the molecular basis for disease with fundamental understanding of how potential drug molecules interact with specific disease targets and the whole organism. These two lectures are intended to give a broad and general introduction to the drug

Jim Wells and Michelle Arkin (UCSF) Part 2: From "Hit" to Pill
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-techniques/james-wellsmichelle-arkin.html The modern drug discovery process integrates our deepest understanding of the molecular basis for disease with fundamental understanding of how potential drug molecules interact with specific disease targets and the whole organism. These two lectures are intended to give a broad and general introduction to the drug

Joseph DeRisi (UCSF) Part 3: Malaria: Drug Development
This brief set of three lectures gives a very general overview of malaria, the disease and Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most deadly form. Basic research as well as drug development efforts will also be covered in parts two and three of this series. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiology

Joseph DeRisi (UCSF) Part 2: Malaria: Research
This brief set of three lectures gives a very general overview of malaria, the disease and Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most deadly form. Basic research as well as drug development efforts will also be covered in parts two and three of this series. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiology

Joseph DeRisi (UCSF) Part 1: Malaria: The disease and parasites
This brief set of three lectures gives a very general overview of malaria, the disease and Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most deadly form. Basic research as well as drug development efforts will also be covered in parts two and three of this series. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiology

Brian Druker (OHSU) Part 3: Extending the Imatinib Paradigm
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cancer-medicine/brian-druker-part-3.html Imatinib has become the paradigm of targeted drug development. The lessons learned from the clinical trials of imatinib treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia will be reviewed in this section. This will include examples of where imatinib has or has not worked, analysis of target expression versus activation and a discuss

Brian Druker (OHSU) Part 2: Imatinib Resistance and Other Diseases Targeted by Imatinib
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cancer-medicine/brian-druker-part-2.html Imatinib (Gleevec) has become a paradigm for targeted cancer therapies. Although the majority of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) respond well to imatinib, a minority of patients have relapsed. This part of the lecture will cover what has been learned about mechanisms of relapse and how this information has

Brian Druker (OHSU) Part 1: Imatinib (Gleevec): A Targeted Cancer Therapy
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cancer-medicine/brian-druker-part-1.html Imatinib (Gleevec) has become a paradigm for targeted cancer therapies. The first part of this lecture will describe the clinical features and the molecular pathogenesis of the disease for which imatinib was developed, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This overview will trace the history of the identification of the targ

Catherine Dulac (Harvard Univ) Part 3:Sex-Specificity of Pheromone Responses
Pheromones have evolved to signal the sex and the dominance status of animals and to promote social and mating rituals. In this lecture, I discuss the how pheromone sensing operates in mammals. I will discuss the molecular biology of the chemosensory receptors that are involved the first steps of pheromone sensing. At a higher level of complexity, I will discuss a distinct olfactory structure cal

Catherine Dulac (Harvard Univ) Part 2:Molecular Biology of Pheromone Perception
Pheromones have evolved to signal the sex and the dominance status of animals and to promote social and mating rituals. In this lecture, I discuss the how pheromone sensing operates in mammals. I will discuss the molecular biology of the chemosensory receptors that are involved the first steps of pheromone sensing. At a higher level of complexity, I will discuss a distinct olfactory structure cal

Mary Beckerle (University of Utah) Part 3: Focal Adhesions as Stress Sensors
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cell-biology/mary-beckerle-part-3.html In the third segment of my seminar, I address a new frontier in cell biology, that is how cells respond to mechanical information. Cells and tissues are exposed to physical forces in vivo and excessive mechanical stress leads to a variety of pathological consequences. I describe a system for exposing cells to controlled m

Mary Beckerle (University of Utah) Part 2: Discovery and Characterization
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cell-biology/mary-beckerle-part-2.html In the second segment, I describe the identification of the focal adhesion protein, zyxin, by my lab. Recent work revealed that zyxin is down-regulated upon expression of the Ewing sarcoma oncoprotein, EWS-FLI. Loss of zyxin expression results in enhanced cell motility and is also associated with failed apoptotic signalin

Mary Beckerle (University of Utah) Part 1: Adhesion, Signaling and Cancer
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cell-biology/mary-beckerle-part-1.html Cell-substratum adhesion is mediated by integrins, a family of transmembrane, heterodimeric, extracellular matrix receptors that are concentrated at focal adhesions. Integin engagement influences a variety of signaling pathways and regulates cell behaviors including motility, proliferation, and survival. Disturbance of no

Norma Andrews (U. Maryland) Part 3: Strategies for Cell Invasion and Intracellular Survival
In the third part of this lecture, I will discuss current work from our laboratory on mechanisms used by the intracellular parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania to interact with mammalian cells. In addition to clarifying specific molecular strategies used by these parasites to infect and survive within host cells, these studies also led, in some instances, to unexpected insights on novel pat

Norma Andrews (U. Maryland) Part 2: Leishmania spp and Leishmaniasis
In the second part of this lecture, I will present background material on Leishmania, the intracellular protozoan parasites responsible for severe human pathology in several parts of the world. I will discuss the main disease forms, the history of identification of the causative agent and form of transmission, and recent discoveries that established important concepts in our understanding of this

Kurt Thorn (UCSF): Confocal Microscopy
Confocal microscopy is a powerful technique for acquiring three-dimensional images of biological samples. Here I discuss the basic principles of confocal microscopy, with specific discussions of the operation of laser scanning and spinning disk confocal microscopes and of their application to biology. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiology

Carolyn Bertozzi (UC Berkeley) Part 2: Imaging the Glycome
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/biophysics-chemical-biology/carolyn-bertozzi-part-2.html Since glycans cannot be labeled with genetically-encoded reporters such as GFP, bioorthoganal reactions have been developed to allow their labeling and imaging. In this lecture, Bertozzi describes the chemistry and imaging methodology used to view glycoproteins in cells and whole organisms. See more at h

David Roos (U Penn) Part 3C: Designing and mining pathogen genome databases
http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/global-health-a-energy/david-s-roos.html With the emergence of genomic-scale datasets representing all of the genes in the genome, all of the proteins in a cell or tissue, and all of the interactions and signals in an organism, biologists are increasingly faced with the challenge of how to store, integrate, and interrogate this information. How can we effecti

Stanley Falkow (Stanford University) Part 1: Human-Pathogen Interaction
Lecture Overview Ninety percent of the cells humans carry are microbes. Only a few of the bacteria we encounter are pathogenic and can cause disease. Pathogens possess the inherent ability to cross anatomic barriers or breach other host defenses that limit the microbes that make up our normal flora. A significant part of human evolution has gone into developing ways to thwart microbial intrusion.

Stanley Falkow (Stanford University) Part 2: Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Cancer
Lecture Overview Ninety percent of the cells humans carry are microbes. Only a few of the bacteria we encounter are pathogenic and can cause disease. Pathogens possess the inherent ability to cross anatomic barriers or breach other host defenses that limit the microbes that make up our normal flora. A significant part of human evolution has gone into developing ways to thwart microbial intrusion.

Cynthia Kenyon (UCSF) Part 2: :The Regulation of Aging by Signals from the Reproductive System
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/development-stem-cells/cynthia-kenyon-part-2.html Once it was thought that aging was just a random and haphazard process. Instead, the rate of aging turns out to be subject to regulation by transcription factors that respond to hormones and other signals. In the nematode C. elegans, in which many key discoveries about aging were first made, the aging process i

Cynthia Kenyon (UCSF) Part 1: Genes that Control Aging
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/development-stem-cells/cynthia-kenyon-part-1.html Once it was thought that aging was just a random and haphazard process. Instead, the rate of aging turns out to be subject to regulation by transcription factors that respond to hormones and other signals. In the nematode C. elegans, in which many key discoveries about aging were first made, the aging process i

Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz (NIH) Part 1: Intracellular Fluorescent Imaging: An Introduction
Overview Recent breakthroughs in intracellular fluorescent imaging allow the visualization, tracking, and quantification of molecular interactions within living cells and whole organisms. In part 1 of this talk, Lippincott-Schwartz gives an overview of the development of fluorescent protein markers, explains how these proteins are used to label intracellular compartments, and how fluorescent micr

Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz (NIH) Part 2: Photobleaching and Photoactivation
In her second lecture, Lippincott-Schwartz describes how two imaging techniques, photoactivation and photobleaching (FRAP), can be used to switch on or off specific subsets of fluorescent molecules. She and others have used these techniques to ask questions about the kinetics of the movement of specific molecules through the secretory pathway. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiolog

Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz (NIH) Part 3: Super Resolution Imaging
LIppincott-Schwartz' third lecture focuses on super-resolution imaging, or Photo Activated Localization Microscopy (PALM), a process that allows the behavior of individual fluorescent molecules to be followed. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiology

Satyajit Mayor (NCBS) Part 3: Making Rafts in Living Cell Membranes
In Part 3, I describe collaborative interdisciplinary work from my laboratory and that of my physicist colleague, Prof. Madan Rao, where we explore the organization of lipid-tethered proteins in living cells using new biophysical tools developed for this purpose. These studies have compelled us to refine the notion of membrane rafts as functional lipid-assemblies consisting of nanoscale clusters

Satyajit Mayor (NCBS) Part 2: Looking for Functional Rafts in Cell Membranes
In part 2, I focus on our laboratory's ongoing preoccupation with rafts where we study the characteristics a popular "raft-marker", a class of cell surface lipid-tethered proteins, the GPI-anchored proteins. These lipid-tethered molecules are sorted at the cell surface into a specialized endocytic pathway, suggesting their segregation at the cell surface. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org F

Satyajit Mayor (NCBS) Part 1: What are Membrane Rafts?
The plasma membrane demarcates the inside of the living cell from the outside, serving both as the ultimate physical barrier and location where the cell transacts its business with the outside world. The study of the structure of cell membranes continues to be fertile ground for research for many biologists today; the idea of "Membrane Rafts" has only heightened interest in this area. The main fo

John McKinney (EPFL) Part 4: Targeting M. tuberculosis Carbon Metabolism In Vivo
Part 4: All pathogens must acquire and assimilate nutrients from their hosts in order to grow and multiply -- our tissues are literally their food -- yet surprisingly little is known about this fundamental aspect of the pathogenic lifestyle. Accumulating evidence suggests that M. tuberculosis might utilize fatty acids as its principal carbon and energy source during infection. The fourth part of

John McKinney (EPFL) Part 3: Phenotypic Heterogeneity and Antibiotic Tolerance
Part 3: The principal obstacle to successful treatment of tuberculosis is the lengthy duration of current regimens, which require administration of multiple drugs for 6-9 months. The requirement for prolonged therapy is attributed to sub-populations of bacillary "persisters" that are refractory to antimicrobials. The persisters are not drug-resistant in the conventional (heritable) sense and it i

John McKinney (EPFL) Part 2: Tools for Tuberculosis Control: Not Just a Problem of Implementation
Part 2: Tuberculosis remains one of the most important causes of human disease and death despite the introduction of vaccination in 1921 and chemotherapy in 1952. Although these interventions are inexpensive and widely available their impact is limited. The effectiveness of vaccination is unclear; in clinical trials, the protection conferred by vaccination has been variable and generally poor. Al

John McKinney (EPFL) Part 1: Tuberculosis a Persistent Threat
Human population growth and urbanization have accelerated dramatically in recent centuries, providing unprecedented opportunities for microbes that use our bodies as vehicles for their own propagation and transmission. These conditions have led to the emergence of virulent new pathogens and the increased prevalence of "classic" scourges, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This tenacious microbe

David O. Morgan (UCSF) Part 3: Controlling the Cell Cycle: Anaphase Onset
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/david-morgan-part-1.html In the anaphase stage of the cell cycle, the duplicated chromosomes are pulled apart by a machine called the mitotic spindle, resulting in the distribution of a complete set of chromosomes to each of the daughter cells. In the third part of this lecture, I describe the combination of biochemistry and microscopy in my lab

David O. Morgan (UCSF) Part 2: Controlling the Cell Cycle: Cdk Substrates
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/david-morgan-part-1.html Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are the central components of the control system that initiates the events of the cell cycle. In the second part of this lecture, I discuss my laboratory's efforts to address the problem of how the Cdks trigger cell-cycle events. I describe our methods for identifying the protein substrate

David O. Morgan (UCSF) Part 1: Controlling the Cell Cycle: Introduction
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/david-morgan-part-1.html Cells reproduce by duplicating their chromosomes and other components and then distributing them into a pair of genetically identical daughter cells. This series of events is called the cell cycle. In the first part of this lecture, I provide a general overview of the cell-cycle control system, a complex regulatory netwo

Toto Olivera (U. Utah/HHMI) Part 3: Conus Peptide Genes a "Drug Development Program" (archive)
See his new talk at http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/toto-olivera-part-3.html Although snails are not the first animals that come to mind when venoms are mentioned, there are in fact a large number (~10,000 species) of different venomous predatory snails. The most intensively studied of these are the cone snails (Conus), which have a large number of peptide neurotoxins present in their venoms

Toto Olivera (U. Utah/HHMI) Part 2: How a Fish Hunting Snail Captures its Prey (archive)
See his new talk at http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/toto-olivera-part-2.html Although snails are not the first animals that come to mind when venoms are mentioned, there are in fact a large number (~10,000 species) of different venomous predatory snails. The most intensively studied of these are the cone snails (Conus), which have a large number of peptide neurotoxins present in their venoms

Toto Olivera (U. Utah/HHMI) Part 1: Cone Snail Peptides (archive)
See his new talk at http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/toto-olivera-part-1.html Although snails are not the first animals that come to mind when venoms are mentioned, there are in fact a large number (~10,000 species) of different venomous predatory snails. The most intensively studied of these are the cone snails (Conus), which have a large number of peptide neurotoxins present in their venoms

Martin Raff (UCL) Part 2: Cell Number Control
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/martin-raff.html In the second segment of my talk, I describe our work on cell number control in the rat oligodendrocyte cell lineage. Cell numbers depend on controls on both cell death and cell proliferation. We have found that oligodendrocytes are normally overproduced and kill themselves in large numbers in a competition for survival signals

Martin Raff (UCL) Part 1: Regulation of Cell Size
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/martin-raff.html The size of an organ or organism depends mainly on the sizes and numbers of the cells it contains. In the first segment of my talk, I describe our work on cell size control in cultures of purified rat Schwann cells. Most proliferating cells grow before they divide, but it is not known how growth and division are co-ordinated to

Randy Schekman (Berkeley) Part 2: Biochemical Reconstitution of Transport Vesicle Budding
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/randy-schekman.html Secretion mutants that block protein exit from the endoplasmic reticulum define genes involved in the formation, targeting and fusion of a small vesicle intermediate. SEC genes corresponding to the mutants defective in vesicle budding define the cytoplasmic machinery responsible for transport vesicle morphogenesis. A biochemi

Randy Schekman (Berkeley) Part 1: Studying Protein Secretion in Yeast
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/randy-schekman.html Protein secretion is executed by a cellular pathway involving the delivery of membrane and soluble secretory proteins in vesicles that capture newly-synthesized proteins assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and sorted in the Golgi apparatus. Vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane resulting in the discharge of soluble m

Randy Schekman (Berkeley) Part 3: Human Diseases of Vesicle Budding
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/randy-schekman.html Human COPII genes are duplicated and some may have evolved specialized functions. Two rare human diseases affect the activity of one of two copies of Sar1 and the Sec23A subunit of the COPII coat. Anderson's disease results in the failure of enterocytes of the absorptive epithelium to secrete large lipoprotein particles calle

Lucy Shapiro (Stanford Univ) Part 1: Dynamics of the Bacterial Chromosome
Most bacterial cells have their genes arranged in a single circle of DNA. The circle of DNA plus some attached proteins is refered to as the bacterial chromosome. Up until quite recently, it was thought that the chromosome in the tiny bacteria cell resembled a tangled ball of yarn. It is now known that multiple factors cooperate to condense DNA into a highly dynamic assembly of supercoiled loops.

Chris Somerville (Energy Biosciences Institute, UC Berkeley/LBNL) Part 2: Cellulosic Biofuels
In the second segment, the potential for various types of biofuels are compared and some of the technical challenges in production of cellulosic fuels are outlined. In 2007, Chris Somerville became Director of the Energy Biosciences Institute at the University of California, Berkeley and a professor at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org From: iBiolo

Chris Somerville (Energy Biosciences Institute, UC Berkeley/LBNL) Part 1: The Argument for Biofuels
The first segment of this presentation describes the rationale for using plant biomass as a source of fuels and presents information about how much energy could be obtained in this way. Examples of the kinds of plants that are likely to be used are presented along with comments on some of the issues, such as losses to disease and effects of various cropping systems on soil quality, that need addi

Ruth Lehmann (NYU) Part 1: Germ Cell Specification
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=708&Itemid=702 When an egg is fertilized, two distinct groups of cells are formed; the somatic cells which give rise to all the structures in body and will ultimately die, and the primordial germ cells which become germ line stem cells that produce sperm and egg and thus, can give rise to another generation. Hence, germ cell

Ruth Lehmann (NYU) Part 2: RNA Regulation
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=712&Itemid=703 In Part 2, Lehmann focuses on the role of RNA regulation in germ cell development. A series of regulatory cascades allows the spatial and temporal regulation of maternal RNA translation that in turn regulates the specification of primordial germ cells, migration of these cells to the gonads, transcription in e

Ruth Lehmann (NYU) Part 3: Germ Cell Migration
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=713&Itemid=707 What are the signals that tell a primordial germ cell when to migrate, where to migrate and when to stop? Lehmann addresses these questions in Part 3 by using fluoresently labeled PGCs to reveal the patterns of migration during embryogenesis. In Drosophila, Lehmann identifies several genes responsible for regu

Ruth Lehmann (NYU) Part 4: Lipid Signals Guide Germ Cells
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=714&Itemid=708 In the last part of her talk, Lehmann expands on the role of lipid signals in guiding germ cell migration. Her lab has found that lipid phosphate phosphatases create gradients of lipid phosphate attractants and in this manner direct cell movement. HMGCoA reductase is also a key enzyme since it is required for

Susan Taylor (UCSD) Part 1: Protein Phosphorylation in Biology
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/biophysics-chemical-biology/susan-taylor-part-1.html In this lecture, I have given an overview of protein kinase structure and function using cyclic AMP dependent kinase (PKA) as a prototype for this enzyme superfamily. I have demonstrated what we have learned from the overall structural kinome which allows us to compare many protein kinases and also to apprec

Susan Taylor (UCSD) Part 2: Architecture of a Protein Kinase
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/biophysics-chemical-biology/susan-taylor-part-2.html In this lecture, I have given an overview of protein kinase structure and function using cyclic AMP dependent kinase (PKA) as a prototype for this enzyme superfamily. I have demonstrated what we have learned from the overall structural kinome which allows us to compare many protein kinases and also to apprec

Susan Taylor (UCSD) Part 3: Protein Kinase Regulation and Localization
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/biophysics-chemical-biology/susan-taylor-part-3.html In this lecture, I have given an overview of protein kinase structure and function using cyclic AMP dependent kinase (PKA) as a prototype for this enzyme superfamily. I have demonstrated what we have learned from the overall structural kinome which allows us to compare many protein kinases and also to apprec

Jonathan Weissman (UCSF/HHMI): DNA Sequencing
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=701&Itemid=695 In this lecture, Weissman gives an overview of the methodology that allows the sequence of DNA to be determined. He begins by explaining the classic Sanger sequencing technique using radioactively labeled nucleotides and gel electrophoresis. Next, advances such as fluorescently labeled nucleotides and capillar

Jim Haber (Brandeis) Part 1: Mechanisms of DNA Repair by Recombination
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=690&Itemid=684 Part 1. The most deleterious form of DNA damage is a double-strand break (DSB), which can arise from errors in DNA replication, from the failure of topoisomerases to complete their cycles of DNA cutting and rejoining, from mechanical stress and from the action of endonucleases that cleave DNA. Here we review h

Jim Haber (Brandeis) Part 2: Details of DNA Repair in Budding Yeast
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=691&Itemid=685 Part 2. A specific set of examples of homologous recombination in budding yeast is presented based primarily on data from the Haber lab. Here a site-specific HO endonuclease can be induced to create a single DSB in the genome and the kinetics of repair can be followed in real time. The roles of key recombinati

Mu-ming Poo (UC Berkeley, CAS Shanghai) Part 2:Hebb's Postulate Revisited
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=717&Itemid=710 In Part 2, Poo expands upon the "cells that fire together, wire together" idea. He describes experiments investigating the requirement of the timing of pre- and postsynaptic neuronal spiking in the modification of synaptic strength by correlated activities. He showed the importance of the order of spiking in t

Mu-ming Poo (UC Berkeley, CAS Shanghai) Part 4: How Neural Circuits Learn Time Intervals
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=715&Itemid=712 The potential function of STDP in storing time interval information in the sensory experience is further illustrated in Part 4. Poo describes experiments on a randomly connected network of cultured neurons and on intact optic tectum of zebrafish larvae that demonstrate how SDTP provides a potential cellular me

Dianne Newman (CalTech) Part 1: An Overview of Microbial Diversity and Evolution
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=724&Itemid=716 Microbes are diverse, ancient, numerous and ubiquitous. In part 1, Newman gives an overview of these four key points. She presents mind-boggling data on the numbers of microbes inhabiting the earth, as well as the environments in which they can survive, and indeed, thrive. Both fossilized and modern microbes c

Dianne Newman (CalTech) Part 2: Microbial Respiration of Arsenate
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=723&Itemid=717 In Part 2, Newman continues to describe microbes with unusual metabolisms. Her lab identified the first known enzymatic pathway that allows microbes to respire arsenic compounds. This work has direct environmental relevance because in Bangladesh and other regions, drinking water often contains very high levels

Dianne Newman (CalTech) Part 3: Interpreting Molecular Fossils of Oxygenic Photosynthesis
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=722&Itemid=718 In the last part of her lecture, Newman describes efforts to date the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis (photosynthesis that uses water as a substrate and produces oxygen as a product) in the ancient rock record using a particular type of a molecular fossil, or "biomarker". She explains the importance of id

Pamela Ronald (UC Davis) Part 1: Sustainable agriculture
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/global-health-a-energy/pamela-ronald.html In Part 1 of her lecture, Ronald emphasizes the importance of developing sustainable agricultural practices that will allow the world's population to be fed without destroying the Earth. Ronald demonstrates that modern genetics approaches have facilitated development of new crop varieties that can increase crop yields

Susan McConnell (Stanford): Designing effective scientific presentations
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=731&Itemid=722 What is the best way to give a talk that engages and informs your audience? Dr. McConnell gives helpful advice on preparing and presenting an effective scientific talk. She reviews the basics of PowerPoint or Key Note and gives advice on choosing fonts, colors and slide styles. She also recommends ways to stru

Roy Parker (U. Colorado Boulder/HHMI) Part 1: mRNA Localization, Translation and Degradation
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=738&Itemid=732 Part 1 The control of mRNA production and function is a key aspect of the regulation of gene expression. In the first part of this lecture, I will discuss how in eukaryotic cells, the control of mRNA localization, translation and degradation in the cytoplasm allow for the proper regulation of the amount, durat

Roy Parker (U. Colorado Boulder/HHMI) Part 2: P-bodies and the mRNA Cycle
http://www.ibioseminars.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=742&Itemid=736 In the second part of this lecture, I will provide an overview of why the regulation of translation and mRNA degradation is an important aspect of the control of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. In addition to the translating pool of mRNAs associated with polysomes, recent experiments have identified P-bod

Anthony Hyman (Max Planck Institute) Part 4: Formation of P granules
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/anthony-hyman.html A eukaryotic cell is often 5-6 orders of magnitude larger than the molecules that make it up. How is it that these molecules interact to organize the complex structures that constitute a cell? In part 1 of his seminar, Dr. Hyman explains how cell division in a C. elegans embryo provides an excellent model for organization of c

Anthony Hyman (Max Planck Institute) Part 3: Formation and duplication of centrioles
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/anthony-hyman.html A eukaryotic cell is often 5-6 orders of magnitude larger than the molecules that make it up. How is it that these molecules interact to organize the complex structures that constitute a cell? In part 1 of his seminar, Dr. Hyman explains how cell division in a C. elegans embryo provides an excellent model for organization of c

Anthony Hyman (Max Planck Institute) Part 2: Building a polymer: microtubule dynamics
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/anthony-hyman.html A eukaryotic cell is often 5-6 orders of magnitude larger than the molecules that make it up. How is it that these molecules interact to organize the complex structures that constitute a cell? In part 1 of his seminar, Dr. Hyman explains how cell division in a C. elegans embryo provides an excellent model for organization of c

Anthony Hyman (Max Planck Institute) Part 1: How does complexity arise from molecular interactions?
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/anthony-hyman.html A eukaryotic cell is often 5-6 orders of magnitude larger than the molecules that make it up. How is it that these molecules interact to organize the complex structures that constitute a cell? In part 1 of his seminar, Dr. Hyman explains how cell division in a C. elegans embryo provides an excellent model for organization of c

Graham Hatfull (University of Pittsburgh/HHMI) Part 3: Mycobacteriophage genomics
Bacteriophage, viruses that specifically infect bacteria, are, by far, the majority of all biological entities in the biosphere. The viral population, including bacteriophage, is very diverse yet relatively few viral genomes have been sequenced. In this series of lectures, Hatfull argues that viral genomes provide a great source of new genes, potentially with new functions and structures. In Part

Graham Hatfull (University of Pittsburgh/HHMI) Part 2: Bacteriophages: Genomic insights.
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/cell-bio-a-med/graham-hatfull.html Bacteriophage, viruses that specifically infect bacteria, are, by far, the majority of all biological entities in the biosphere. The viral population, including bacteriophage, is very diverse yet relatively few viral genomes have been sequenced. In this series of lectures, Hatfull argues that viral genomes provide a great sou

Graham Hatfull (University of Pittsburgh/HHMI) Part 1: Bacteriophages: What are they?
http://www.ibioseminars.org/ Bacteriophage, viruses that specifically infect bacteria, are, by far, the majority of all biological entities in the biosphere. The viral population, including bacteriophage, is very diverse yet relatively few viral genomes have been sequenced. In this series of lectures, Hatfull argues that viral genomes provide a great source of new genes, potentially with new func

Sharon Long (Stanford) Part 2: Function and regulation of Sinorhizobium nodulation genes
http://ibioseminar.hhmi.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/sharon-long.html Legume plants form specialized root nodules to host "rhizobia", nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts. Rhizobia hosting legumes are able to grow without exogenous nitrogen fertilizer allowing them to be high in protein and to provide nutrition to surrounding plants. In part 1 of her talk, Long gives an overview rhizobium-legume sy

Sharon Long (Stanford) Part 3: Plant genes and cell response in nitrogen-fixing symbiosis
http://ibioseminar.hhmi.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/sharon-long.html Legume plants form specialized root nodules to host "rhizobia", nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts. Rhizobia hosting legumes are able to grow without exogenous nitrogen fertilizer allowing them to be high in protein and to provide nutrition to surrounding plants. In part 1 of her talk, Long gives an overview rhizobium-legume sy

Alfred Wittinghofer (MPI) Part 2: GTPase Reactions and Diseases
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/biophysics-chemical-biology/alfred-wittinghofer-part-2.html In the second part of Dr. Wittinghofer's talk he explains the link between GTPases and disease. Ras is both a key molecule in regulating normal cell growth and an oncogene in unregulated cancer cell growth. Mutations in Ras that prevent the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP lock Ras into an active state render

Alfred Wittinghofer (MPI) Part 1: GTP-binding Proteins as Molecular Switches
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/biophysics-chemical-biology/alfred-wittinghofer-part-1.html When a growth factor binds to the plasma membrane of a quiescent cell, an intracellular signaling pathway is activated telling the cell to begin growing. A key molecule in this signaling pathway is the GTP-binding protein, or G-protein, Ras. Ras can act as an on-off switch telling the cell to grow or

Kai Simons (MPI) Part 3: Biogenesis of glycolipid-rich apical membranes
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/kai-simons.html Simons begins by explaining that both cholesterol and sphingolipids are made in the ER and transported to various membranes in the cell. This sorting leads to an increased concentration of cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membrane relative to other membranes. In addition, cholesterol and sphingolipids tend to cluster t

Kai Simons (MPI) Part 2: Lipid rafts as a membrane organizing principle
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/kai-simons.html Simons begins by explaining that both cholesterol and sphingolipids are made in the ER and transported to various membranes in the cell. This sorting leads to an increased concentration of cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membrane relative to other membranes. In addition, cholesterol and sphingolipids tend to cluster t

Kai Simons (MPI) Part 1: The role of lipids in organizing the cellular traffic.
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/kai-simons.html Simons begins by explaining that both cholesterol and sphingolipids are made in the ER and transported to various membranes in the cell. This sorting leads to an increased concentration of cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membrane relative to other membranes. In addition, cholesterol and sphingolipids tend to cluster t

Ron Vale (UCSF) Part 3: Mining the Genome for Mitotic Treasures (archive)
See his new talk at: http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cell-biology/ron-vale-part-1.html Molecular motor proteins are fascinating enzymes that power much of the movement performed by living organisms. In the first part of this lecture, I will provide an overview of the motors that move along cytoskeletal tracks (kinesin and dynein which move along microtubules and myosin which moves along acti

Ron Vale (UCSF) Part 2: Single Molecule Approaches for Understanding Dynein (archive)
See his new talk at: http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cell-biology/ron-vale-part-2.html Molecular motor proteins are fascinating enzymes that power much of the movement performed by living organisms. In the first part of this lecture, I will provide an overview of the motors that move along cytoskeletal tracks (kinesin and dynein which move along microtubules and myosin which moves along acti

David Botstein Part 1: Fruits of the Genome Sequences
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/cell-bio-a-med/david-botstein.html Dr. Botstein gives an overview of the benefits for science and society derived from sequencing the genomes of multiple organisms, including humans. The sequences show that many genes have been conserved during evolution; a finding that allows scientists to study simple organisms such as yeast and relate their findings to mamm


David Botstein Part 2: Connecting Growth Control and Stress Response
http://ibioseminar.hhmi.org/lectures/cell-bio-a-med/david-botstein/david-botstein-part-2.html Botstein describes experiments done in his lab studying, in yeast, the coordination of growth rate, stress response, metabolism and cell division. Using innovative methods to color code and cluster numerical data from DNA hybridization experiments allows the identification of genes involved in regulating

Sangeeta Bhatia Part 1: Engineering Tissue Replacements
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/biophysics-chemical-biology/sangeeta-bhatia-part-1.html The concept of engineering tissues that are part cell and part synthetic material was proposed nearly 20 years ago. Bhatia explains why one would choose to use an engineered tissue and the challenges of engineering a tissue that reproduces the micro-architecture of tissue in vivo. She goes on to describe

Sangeeta Bhatia Part 2: Microscale Liver Tissue Engineering
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/biophysics-chemical-biology/sangeeta-bhatia-part-2.html In the second part of her talk, Bhatia tells us about research from her lab and others to develop an implantable, engineered liver. She explains the challenges of co-culturing hepatocytes and the supporting cells necessary to keep the hepatocytes functional. Her lab has successfully engineered microscale

Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa (Johns Hopkins) Part 1: Brain Tumors
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/alfredo-quinones-hinojosa-part-1.html In part 1, Quiñones-Hinojosa discusses the history of brain tumors, different types of tumors (non-cancerous vs cancerous) and what this means for treatment and prognosis. He then focuses on a specific type of tumor, glioblastoma multiforme, and outlines what oncologists and surgeons have learned about this cancer over the

Roger Hanlon (MBL) Part 1: Camouflage and Signaling in Cephalopods
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/ecology-a-behavior/roger-hanlon.html Hanlon introduces the amazing adaptive coloration of cephalopods. He uses video and still photography to showcase their ability to rapidly change color, pattern and skin texture with fine control and a diversity of appearances, to produce camouflage or to send signals. He argues that all camouflage patterns in nature can be

Roger Hanlon (MBL) Part 2: Exploring Mechanisms of Visual Perception
http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/ecology-a-behavior/roger-hanlon/roger-hanlon-part-2.html Hanlon introduces the amazing adaptive coloration of cephalopods. He uses video and still photography to showcase their ability to rapidly change color, pattern and skin texture with fine control and a diversity of appearances, to produce camouflage or to send signals. He argues that all camouflage patte

Roger Hanlon (MBL) Part 3: Changeable Skin
Hanlon introduces the amazing adaptive coloration of cephalopods. He uses video and still photography to showcase their ability to rapidly change color, pattern and skin texture with fine control and a diversity of appearances, to produce camouflage or to send signals. He argues that all camouflage patterns in nature can be grouped into three types. In part 2, Hanlon shows us results from his lab

J. Michael Bishop (UCSF) Part 1: Forging a genetic paradigm for cancer
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cancer-medicine/j-michael-bishop-part-1.html Bishop begins his lecture with a historical review of the experiments that resulted in the realization that cancer has a genetic basis. He explains that mutations can cause normal cellular genes known as proto-oncogenes to become oncogenes, analogous to jammed accelerators causing uncontrolled cell division. Alterna

J. Michael Bishop (UCSF) Part 2: The cancer genome: Challenge and promise
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cancer-medicine/j-michael-bishop-part-2.html In part 2 of his lecture, Bishop describes how the sequencing of cancer genomes will advance the study and management of cancer on various fronts, including the discovery of causes, the improvement of early detection, the prediction of outcome and the development of new therapeutics. He stresses the promise of desig

J. Michael Bishop (UCSF) Part 3: The cancer genome and therapeutics
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/cancer-medicine/j-michael-bishop-part-3.html Bishop begins his lecture with a historical review of the experiments that resulted in the realization that cancer has a genetic basis. He explains that mutations can cause normal cellular genes known as proto-oncogenes to become oncogenes, analogous to jammed accelerators causing uncontrolled cell division. Alterna

Carlos Bustamante: Single Molecule Manipulation in Biochemistry
http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/biophysics-chemical-biology/carlos-bustamante-part-1.html Dr. Bustamante begins his talk by explaining why one would wish to study biochemical reactions at the level of single molecules. He explains that many processes within the cell are carried out by very few molecules. By studying single molecules, it is possible to obtain details about the mechanism of a

Melissa Moore (U. Mass/HHMI) Part 1: Split Genes and RNA Splicing
http://www.ibioseminars.org In the first part of her talk, Dr. Moore explains that eukaryotic pre-mRNA contains long stretches of non-protein coding sequences interspersed with protein coding regions. By recognizing specific sequences, cellular machinery splices out the non-coding introns leaving just the protein-coding exons in mRNA. Although at first glance this may seem like a wasteful process

Melissa Moore (U. Mass/HHMI) Part 2: Spliceosome Structure and Dynamics
http://www.ibioseminars.org Moore goes on to describe the cellular splicing machine, the spliceosome, in greater detail in Part 2. She lists the components of the spliceosome and where each works in the spliceosome cycle. Moore also explains how the innovative use of fluorescent protein tags and total internal reflection microscopy has allowed her and her colleagues to better understand the order

Nancy Knowlton (Smithsonian) Part 2: Biodiversity and Why It Matters
http://www.ibioseminars.org/ Dr. Knowlton begins her talk by explaining what coral are and how they build reefs. Using many spectacular photographs, Knowlton illustrates the decline of most of the world's coral reefs over the past 30-40 years. She describes the effects of direct destruction such as dynamite fishing, as well as the more indirect, but equally catastrophic, effects of invasive speci

Nancy Knowlton (Smithsonian) Part 1: Coral Reefs: Past, Present and Future
http://www.ibioseminars.org/ Dr. Knowlton begins her talk by explaining what coral are and how they build reefs. Using many spectacular photographs, Knowlton illustrates the decline of most of the world's coral reefs over the past 30-40 years. She describes the effects of direct destruction such as dynamite fishing, as well as the more indirect, but equally catastrophic, effects of invasive speci

Robert Tjian (Berkeley/HHMI) Part 2: Gene regulation: Why so complex?
http://www.ibioseminars.org Transcription, the conversion of DNA to RNA, is one of the most fundamental processes in cell biology. However, only about 3% of our total DNA encodes genes to be transcribed. RNA polymerase II, the enzyme that transcribes DNA to RNA, relies on a large set of proteins known as transcription factors to recognize the coding sequences and to transcribe the correct genes,

Robert Tjian (Berkeley/HHMI) Part 1: Gene regulation: An introduction
http://www.ibioseminars.org Transcription, the conversion of DNA to RNA, is one of the most fundamental processes in cell biology. However, only about 3% of our total DNA encodes genes to be transcribed. RNA polymerase II, the enzyme that transcribes DNA to RNA, relies on a large set of proteins known as transcription factors to recognize the coding sequences and to transcribe the correct genes,

Cori Bargmann (Rockefeller) Part 2: Cracking the circuits for olfaction
http://www.ibioseminars.org In her first talk, Cori Bargmann explains how individual genes can affect the brain and behavior. Humans are complex creatures, but as many as 99% of our genes are shared with simpler organisms. By focusing on the genes for a family of proteins found in many organisms, the G protein-coupled receptors, Bargmann illustrates that mutations in a single gene can cause signi

Cori Bargmann (Rockefeller) Part 1 : Genes, the brain and behavior
http://www.ibioseminars.org In her first talk, Cori Bargmann explains how individual genes can affect the brain and behavior. Humans are complex creatures, but as many as 99% of our genes are shared with simpler organisms. By focusing on the genes for a family of proteins found in many organisms, the G protein-coupled receptors, Bargmann illustrates that mutations in a single gene can cause signi

Andrew Murray (Harvard) Part 2: How to shmoo and find a mate
http://www.ibioseminars.org Murray begins his talk by explaining why he studies sex in yeast not humans. He describes the yeast life cycle including the decision to bud in the absence of a mate, or to shmoo and mate in the presence of yeast of the correct mating type. In either case, the cells must switch from uniform to non-uniform or polarized growth. Mating cells must also recognize a chemical

Andrew Murray (Harvard) Part 1: Yeast Sex: An Introduction
http://www.ibioseminars.org Murray begins his talk by explaining why he studies sex in yeast not humans. He describes the yeast life cycle including the decision to bud in the absence of a mate, or to shmoo and mate in the presence of yeast of the correct mating type. In either case, the cells must switch from uniform to non-uniform or polarized growth. Mating cells must also recognize a chemical

Scott Edwards (Harvard) Part 1: Gene trees and phylogeography
http://www.ibioseminars.org In his first lecture, Dr. Edwards explains that studying gene alleles within different populations or species allows the construction of gene trees showing how the groups are related. The gene trees can be used to link genetic variation to geographic distribution of populations; the study of phylogeography. In Part 2, Edwards expands his discussion of phylogeography wi

Tim Mitchison (Harvard) Part 2: Self-organization of meiotic spindles
http://www.ibioseminars.org In his first talk, Tim Mitchison introduces the concept of self-organization of molecules in living systems. He focuses on the cytoskeleton, and in particular on microtubules, as an example of proteins that self-organize and, in turn, are key players in the spatial organization of cells. He also presents an interesting comparison of self-assembly and self-organization

Tim Mitchison (Harvard) Part 1: Self-organization of microtubule assemblies
http://www.ibioseminars.org In his first talk, Tim Mitchison introduces the concept of self-organization of molecules in living systems. He focuses on the cytoskeleton, and in particular on microtubules, as an example of proteins that self-organize and, in turn, are key players in the spatial organization of cells. He also presents an interesting comparison of self-assembly and self-organization

Stephen Harrison (Harvard) Part 3: Non-enveloped virus entry
http://www.ibioseminars.org/ Harrison begins his talk by asking why most non-enveloped viruses and some enveloped viruses are symmetrical in shape. He proceeds to show us lovely images of the structures obtained by x-ray crystallography of numerous viral coat proteins. Deciphering these structures allowed scientists to understand that viral coat proteins form multimers, such as dimers and pentame

Stephen Harrison (Harvard) Part 2: Viral membrane fusion
http://www.ibioseminars.org/ Harrison begins his talk by asking why most non-enveloped viruses and some enveloped viruses are symmetrical in shape. He proceeds to show us lovely images of the structures obtained by x-ray crystallography of numerous viral coat proteins. Deciphering these structures allowed scientists to understand that viral coat proteins form multimers, such as dimers and pentame

Stephen Harrison (Harvard) Part 1: Virus structures: General principles
http://www.ibioseminars.org/ Harrison begins his talk by asking why most non-enveloped viruses and some enveloped viruses are symmetrical in shape. He proceeds to show us lovely images of the structures obtained by x-ray crystallography of numerous viral coat proteins. Deciphering these structures allowed scientists to understand that viral coat proteins form multimers, such as dimers and pentame

What is a headache: The four most common types of headache. And, can you hurt your brain by thinking too much?

Facts About Tardigrades
Tardigrades, often called water bears or moss piglets, are near-microscopic animals that are almost indestructible and can even survive in outer space.

Researchers ponder the shape of birds' eggs
The shape of birds' eggs varies considerably, for reasons that are unclear.

Using dogs to find cats
Investigators are using specially-trained detection dogs to determine the numbers and distribution of cheetah in a region of Western Zambia. The research represents the first demonstration of this strategy for wide-ranging species that are often threatened.

Piloter: Verdens bedst sælgende passagerfly får problemer i en udvidet CPH
Med en lukket tværbane skal fly oftere lette og lande i sidevind i Københavns Lufthavn. De forhold får piloterne i verdens mest populære passagerfly vanskeligere ved at håndtere.

Traveling to TRAPPIST-1: How Long Would It Take? | Video
The ultra cool dwarf star system is about 39 light-years from Earth. Find out how long it would take NASA’s Space Shuttle, the New Horizons spacecraft and Breakthrough Starshot’s proposed laser sail-propelled vehicle to travel to the system.

Convex Neural Codes in Dimension 1
Neural codes are collections of binary strings motivated by patterns of neural activity. In this paper, we study algorithmic and enumerative aspects of convex neural codes in dimension 1 (i.e. on a line or a circle). We use the theory of consecutive-ones matrices to obtain some structural and algorithmic results; we use generating functions to obtain enumerative results.

Visual response properties of MSTd emerge from a sparse population code
Neurons in the dorsal subregion of the medial superior temporal (MSTd) area respond to large, complex patterns of retinal flow, implying a role in the analysis of self-motion. Some neurons are selective for the expanding radial motion that occurs as an observer moves through the environment ("heading"), and computational models can account for this finding. However, ample evidence suggests that MS

Applications of Discrete Mathematics for Understanding Dynamics of Synapses and Networks in Neuroscience
Mathematical modeling has broad applications in neuroscience whether modeling the dynamics of a single synapse or an entire network of neurons. In Part I, we model vesicle replenishment and release at the photoreceptor synapse to better understand how visual information is processed. In Part II, we explore a simple model of neural networks with the goal of discovering how network structure shapes

One-off bowel scope cuts cancer risk for at least 17 years
A one-off bowel screening test reduces the risk of developing bowel cancer by more than one third and could save thousands of lives, according to a study.

New study shows how bacteria get into the lungs
Human lungs contain many bacteria, which make up a unique microbiome. New research pinpoints just how they get there, and opens the door to more research on what happens to them – and our bodies – as a result.

Emails Reveal Close Ties Between EPA Boss Scott Pruitt and Fossil Fuel Interests
Documents suggest former Oklahoma AG followed lobby group's guidance on challenging environmental regulations.

Neural networks promise sharpest ever images
Telescopes, the workhorse instruments of astronomy, are limited by the size of the mirror or lens they use. Using 'neural nets', a form of artificial intelligence, a group of Swiss researchers now have a way to push past that limit, offering scientists the prospect of the sharpest ever images in optical astronomy. The new work appears in a paper in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Healthy Heart in Midlife May Lower Dementia Risk Later
Keeping your heart healthy could also benefit your brain — a new study suggests that people who have risk factors for heart disease in middle age are also at increased risk for dementia.

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